Wednesday, November 2, 2011

CONSONANTS /T/,/D/,/B/,/G/,/K/,/P/


CONSONANTS
/T/,/D/,/B/,/G/,/K/,/P/

Lecturer :
Ahmad Febrian, S.Pd.


 






Arranged By :
Arif Ridiawan
Masturoh
Saidah Ahlam




ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT TARBIYAH FACULTY STATE INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC STUDENT
SULTAN THAHA SAIFUDIN
JAMBI 2011

PREFECE


            All praise and gratitude be to Allah only. No power and apart from his efforts. May we always bestowed His mercy and grace in this life wading.
 and greetings are always delegated to the Prophet Muhammad. And their families, friends and those who followed him until the end of time wherever they are.
Alhamdulillah with the permission and the will of Him, so that we can finish this paper. This paper we give the title " CONSONANTS /T/,/D/,/B/,/G/,/K/,/P/ ". Described in a paper on the definition of Friday sermons, and its explanation. With the explanation in this paper are expected to readers understand more about Consonants /T/,/D/,/B/,/G/,/K/,/P/  and so can be a plus in learning.
The authors wish to thank the lecturers who gave an overview of material that must be completed and also all those who helped complete this paper.
            Finally, the authors are looking forward to constructive criticism and suggestions for further refine this paper, that paper is more perfect in the future.

Jambi , October 20, 2011



Writers









CONTENTS


COVER................................................................................................... i
PREFECE .............................................................................................. ii
CHAPTER  I    INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER  II  LITERATURE
A.    Pronunciation /P/ ..................................................................
B.     Prounouncing /T/ and /D/ .....................................................
C.     Pronouncing /K/ ....................................................................
D.    Pronouncing /B/ ....................................................................
E.     Pronouncing /G/ ....................................................................
CHAPTER  III CONCLUSION
A.    Conclusion ............................................................................
B.     Suggestion ............................................................................
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................











CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

This article is for teachers of English who would like to understand more about the teaching and learning of pronunciation. It will also be useful for those who would like to become specialist trainers of pronunciation to other teachers, or carry out research into pronunciation and the teaching of pronunciation. You will find here advice on where to find further resources and training.
All English language teachers are pronunciation teachers. Nobody can speak a language without pronouncing, and even if teachers ignore pronunciation in the classroom, they give the message that their learners' pronunciation is satisfactory, or that pronunciation doesn't matter.
Questionnaires and needs analysis procedures frequently reveal that learners regard pronunciation as a high priority - often much more so than teachers - and it isn't difficult to appreciate the reasons for this: in spoken interaction, pronunciation is often the first barrier to intelligibility, and uncertainty about pronunciation is often a major reason for learners' lack of confidence in speaking.
Many teachers would like to offer their learners more help and support with pronunciation, but feel that they lack the necessary knowledge and skill, or that their own pronunciation is not sufficiently good. In other words, pronunciation is an area where teachers as well as learners often suffer from lack of confidence. 



The era of English as an international language has also raised questions about the goals and models for pronunciation:
  • What constitutes 'good' pronunciation?
  • Should learners aim to sound as native-like as possible?
  • If so, which native accents should they aspire to emulate?
  • And if not, what are appropriate and achievable targets?
  • What types of pronunciation can serve as useful models for learners to base themselves on?
It is very difficult for learners to achieve a pronunciation that sounds like a native speaker's. Discussions of the pronunciation of English as an international language have emphasised the fact that native-like pronunciation is also unnecessary for many learners, and may indeed not be wanted. It has been suggested that intelligibility is a more appropriate objective than conformity to any pre-existing model. Proposals have been made for an agenda of high-priority features which are particularly important for intelligibility. These include consonant sounds (excluding 'th' sounds, which are often difficult for learners of English, but unimportant for intelligibility), consonant clusters (except at the ends of words), contrasts between long and short vowels, and tonic stress. Features which are less important for intelligibility, such as precise vowel qualities, weak forms, and features of connected speech and pitch movements would not be included in teaching programmes. Intelligibility is a complex issue, however, and no doubt depends on different pronunciation features in different contexts, not to mention factors unconnected with pronunciation. Also, of course, learners have different priorities and aspirations - including for some (though probably a decreasing number) a wish to achieve a native-like pronunciation.



In order to be able to deal more effectively with pronunciation, teachers are likely to benefit from developing their knowledge and skills in the following areas:
  1. Understanding how speech sounds are produced, how languages make systematic contrastive use of sounds, which sequences of sounds occur in particular languages, how sequences of sounds are modified in connected speech, and which patterns of stress, rhythm and intonation occur in English and other languages.
  2. Predicting and identifying the aspects of pronunciation which are problematic for particular learners, drawing if possible on contrastive awareness of English and the learners' first language.
  3. Identifying priorities for teaching, taking into consideration learner needs and ambitions, and sociolinguistic factors related to the role of English as an international language.
  4. Distinguishing between aspects of pronunciation which are important for learners to acquire in their own speech, and aspects which are perhaps only important for recognition purposes in facilitating listening comprehension.
  5. Implementing effective procedures for pronunciation teaching, drawing on the range of low- to high-technology resources available.
  6. Integrating a concern for pronunciation into other classroom work whenever appropriate, as well as isolating specific pronunciation features for focused attention.
In the rest of this article you will find ways in which you can develop as a pronunciation teacher through reading articles and books, attending workshops and courses, and joining Special Interest Groups and discussion forums.



CHAPTER II
LITERATURE

A.    Pronouncing /P/
Lips                     : Pressed together
Airstream             : Stopped and then exploded
Vocal cords          : Not vibrating

Possible Pronounciation Problem
Ø  This consonant is familiar to speakers of most languages. However, /p/ is much more explosive in English than it is in other languages when speaking English, /p/ at the beginning of words must be produced with strong aspiration on it might sound like /b/.
·         Example: If you forget to aspirate /p/:    Pear will sound like bear
Pat will sound like bat.
When “p” pollows s ( as in spot, spend, spy ), it is NOT aspirated. Practice saying /p/ by loosely holding a tissue in front of your lips. If you aspirate  /p/ concectly releasing a puff of air, the tissue will flutter.
So puff, puff, puff and you will pronounce a perfect /p/.
Some example in pronouncing /p/:


/p/ At the Beginning of Words
·      Pen      :  pen
·      Put       : pƱt
·      Pay      : peI
·      Pig       : pIg
·      Person : ‘pȝ:sn
/p/  In the Middle of Words
·      Open    : ǝƱpǝn
·      Apple   : ‘æpl
·      Happy  : ‘hæpi
·      Paper   : ‘peIpǝ(r)

/p/ At the End of Words

·         Lip     : lIp
·         Stop    : stɒp
·         Soap   : sǝƱp
·         Map    : mæp
·         Jump  : dᵹʌmp


B.     Prounouncing /T/ and /D/
The T and D consonant sounds.  These two sounds are paired together because they take the same mouth position.  Tt is unvoiced, meaning, only air passes through the mouth.  And dd is voiced, meaning, uh, uh, dd, you make a noise with the vocal cords.  These consonants are stop consonants, which  means there are two parts.  First, a stop of the airflow, and second, a release.  The airflow is stopped by the tongue position.  The tongue will come up and the front part will touch the roof of the mouth just behind the top teeth.  It will then pull down to release the air.  The teeth are together, tt, and as the air comes out, when the tongue releases, they part, tt, dd.  Let's take for example the word 'pat'.  Pat:  the first part, the tongue has moved up into position, cutting off the flow of air.  Pa-tt.  And the second part, the tongue releases, and the air comes through the closed teeth.
A note about the teeth position for the D.  As I said, the teeth are together, tt, and part when the air is released.  This must happen for a release of the T.  But the D can actually be made without the teeth coming all the way together:  dad, dad.  You can see there the teeth are not closing all the way, but you're getting a D sound by the tongue coming up into position and pulling away.
Stop consonants are sometimes pronounced without the second part, without this release, when they come at the end of a syllable or a word.  Let's take for example the sentence 'I bet you did'.  I bet, you can see the tongue has moved up into position for the T.  I bet you did.  But rather than releasing air through the teeth, the mouth simply moves into the next sound, which is the 'ew' as in 'few' diphthong.  I bet you did.  I bet you did.  No release.  It's important to note we're not just leaving out the sound.  I bet -- the tongue is moving into position, which is cutting off the airflow.  And that stop is part of the T.  I bet you did.  So even though we're not releasing to give the complete full T, the idea is still there by the tongue going into position, cutting off the airflow.  So T and D can sometimes be pronounced with the stop and the release, and sometimes just the stop.
The T has another pronunciation, it's call the flap or tap T, and on my website in the International Phonetic Alphabet, I use the D symbol to represent this sound because it sounds and functions, and is made just like the D.  This sound happens when the T comes between two vowel sounds.  Let's take for example, the word madder and matter.  One is spelled with two D's, and one with two T's.  But they're pronounced the same:  madder, matter.  Let's look at them in sentences.  I'm madder than I've ever been.  What's the matter?  It's the same sound.
The lip position of these sounds is influenced by the sound that comes next.  For example, dime, dime.  You can see the mouth is taking the shape of the first sound of the 'ai' as in 'buy' diphthong, dime, even before the D is made.  Drain, drain.  Again, you can see the lips taking the position for the R, drain, even before the D is made.  Do, do, again you can see the lips taking the circle for the 'oo' as in 'boo' vowel.  Do, do. Here we see the T/D mouth position on the right compared with the mouth at rest on the left. Here, parts of the mouth are drawn in. The soft palate is raised for these consonant sounds. The tongue position stretches up in the front and presses against the roof of the mouth to make the stop before releasing the air. The position is just behind the top front teeth. Sample words: time/dime, tad/dad, tote/dote. The last two word pairs ended with T's and D's.  Did you notice that I did not release them?  Sample sentence: Tom tasted Dad's dark chocolate treats. Now you will see this sentence up close and in slow motion, both straight on and from an angle, so you can really study how the mouth moves making these sounds.



Tom, with the T, you see the teeth close, the tongue raised behind them. And there's the release. Tom. The lips will close for the M, and when they open you will see the teeth are still closed for the T in tasted.  Then the ST consonant cluster, and there there's a quick ih vowel, there, before the D, tasted. Dad's.  The tongue will come up here to make the D, there will be a quick Z before the D in dark, and you can see the lips already starting to take the form of the R even before the teeth release. Chocolate, tongue through the teeth for the L, and then up to make the T which is a stop here. Treats, and again you see the lips forming the R even before the teeth release the T. And the TS sound at the end.
Tom, you see the tongue tip up behind the closed teeth, releasing into the 'ah' as in 'father'. Lips close for the M. Tasted, tongue up to make the T, quick ih sound and then the D, tasted, Dad's. Tongue up again to make the final D. Dad's. Dark, lips taking the form of the R. Chocolate, tongue up for the L and then to the roof of the mouth to make the stop of the T. And treats, where the lips form the R shape around the closed teeth. And tongue tip up to make the final T, and S sound. Treats.  That's it, and thanks so much for using Rachel's English.

Some example in pronouncing /t/:

/t/At the Beginning of Words
·         Ten        : ten
·         Touch    : tʌt∫
·         Tooth     : tu:q
·         Tape       : teIp
·         Teach     : ti:t∫
/t/ In the Middle of Words
·         Mortar       : ‘mɔ:tǝ(r)
·         Content     : ‘kɒntent
·         Motivation
              mǝƱti’veI∫n
·         Mountain : ‘maƱntǝn
·         Septic       : ‘septIk
/t/ At the End of Words
·         Moult     : mǝƱlt
·         Mount    : maƱnt
·         Contest  : kɒntest
·         Host       : hǝƱst
·         Hot        : hɒt





Some example in pronouncing /d/:


/d/At the Beginning of Words
·         Do           : du:
·         Dirty       : ‘dȝ:ti
·         Deter       : dI’tȝ:(r)
·         Dictator  : dIk’tetǝ(r)
·         Dictation : dIk’teI∫n
/d/ In the Middle of Words

·         Goodwill  : gƱd’wIl
·         Diffident  : ‘dIfIdǝnt
·         Condense : kǝn’dens
·         Condom   : ‘kɒndɒm
·         Condone :kɒn’dǝƱn
/d At the End of Words

·         Stilted  : ‘stIltId
·         Steroid : ‘sterɔId
·         Stupid  : ‘stju:pId
·         Lord     : lɔ:d
·         Dad      : dæd      


C.    Pronouncing /K/
Back to tongue    : Touching the soft palate
Airstream             : Stopped and then exploded
Vocal cords         : Not vibrating
Possible pronunciations Problem
Ø  /k/ is a possible consonant for you to say. Just remember that /k/ is very implosive in English. When it begins a word. It must be said with strong aspiration and puff of air. When “k”follow “s” (as in sky, skin, skate), however, it is NOT aspirated with a puff of air.






Keep practicing. You can say /k/ OK!!
Some example in pronouncing “k”

/k/At the Beginning of Words
·         Cold     : kǝƱld
·         Keep     : ki:p
·         Correct : kǝ’rekt
·         Key      : ki:
·         Can      : kǝn;
/k/ In the Middle of Words

·         Cookie    : ‘kƱki
·         Jacket      : ‘dᵹækIt
·         Because   : bI’kɒz
·         Mechanic : mǝ’kænIk
·         Record     : ‘rekɔ:d
/k/ At the End of Words

·         Like    : laIk
·         Tonic  : ‘tɒnIk
·         Sick    : sIk
·         Speak : spi:k
·         Black  : blæk


D.    Pronouncing /B/
Lips                 : Pressed together (as for [p])
Airstream         : Stopped and then exploded
Vocal cords     : Vibrating
Is pronounced with voicing by closing the lips together, restricting airflow (this is similar to /p/ , but with voicing).


/b/At the Beginning of Words
·         Black  : blæk
·         Bad     : bæd
·         Ball     : bɔ:l
·         Buy     : baI
·         Bitter   : ‘bItǝ(r)
/b/ In the Middle of Words
·         Debase : dI’beIs
·         Gable   : ‘geIbl
·         Babble  : ‘bæbl
·         Dabble  : ‘dæbl
·         Goblin  : ‘gɒblIn
/b/ At the End of Words
·         Job     : dᵹɒb
·         Kerb   : kȝ:b
·         Knob  : nɒb
·         Tab     : tæb
·         Grab   : græb



E.     Pronouncing /G/
Lips                 : Pressed together
Airstream         : Stopped and then exploded
Vocal cords     : Not vibrating
Is pronounced with voicing by touching the back of the tongue against the back of the soft palate, restricting airflow. (this is similar to /k/, but with voicing).



/g/At the Beginning of Words
·         Gold         : gǝƱld
·         Gable        : ‘geIbl
·         Gasket      : ‘gæskIt
·         Generative: ‘dᵹenǝrǝtIv
·         Genius      : ‘dᵹi:niǝs
/g/ In the Middle of Words

·         Haggard  : ‘hægǝd
·         Lagoon    : lǝ’gu:n
·         Begin       : bI:gIn
·         Hungry    : ‘hʌŋri
·         Agree       : ǝ’gri:
/g/ At the End of Words

·         Beg  : beg
·         Pig   : pIg
·         Log  : lɒg
·         Flag  : flæg
·         Drug : drʌg         











CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION

A.                Conclusion
/p/ is much more explosive in English than it is in other languages when speaking English, /p/ at the beginning of words must be produced with strong aspiration on it might sound like /b/.
A note about the teeth position for the D.  As I said, the teeth are together, tt, and part when the air is released.  This must happen for a release of the T.  But the D can actually be made without the teeth coming all the way together:  dad, dad.  You can see there the teeth are not closing all the way, but you're getting a D sound by the tongue coming up into position and pulling away.
T, and d, similar in pronunciation, the position of its mouth, which distinguishes the sound coming out of the mouth.

















BIBLIOGRAPHY

John, Daniel. 1972. An Outline of English Phonetic. Cambridge University Press.
http://www.foundalis.com/lan/grkalpha.htm


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