Wednesday, August 24, 2016

ESP English For Medical

Acknowledgement

Assalamualaikum wr.wb
First thanks to Allah Swt who always gives all the best of this life and there is no doubt about it. Shalawat and salam to the prophet Muhammad Saw and his family. Thanks for all of my friends in group nine because gave idea and participant for finished this script.
This script may isn’t yet perfect, may any have mistake in material, or type, we hope reader can forgive as, we are need critic and solution or idea for make this script be better. Thanks for we lecture gave we job and help to how finish this job. May just it from as, sorry if any mistake,
Wasslamualikum wr,wb.
 
            

CONTENTS

COVER .................................................................................................. i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................... ii
CONTENTS............................................................................................ iii
CHAPTER I
1.      Medical text ................................................................................1
2.      Writing Assegment...................................................................... 2
3.      Role Play
a.      Role Play I....................................................................... 3
b.      Role Play II..................................................................... 5
CHAPTER II
CONCLUSION ..................................................................................... 6



CHAPTER I

1.      Medical Text
Down Syndrome
This is the VOA Special English HEALTH REPORT.
Human genes are normally organized along forty-six chromosomes in our cells, twenty-three from each parent.
But some people are born with an extra copy of the twenty-first chromosome. This third copy is a result of a mistake in cell division. The name for this condition is Down syndrome.
A British doctor named John Langdon Down first described it in the eighteen sixties. An estimated three hundred fifty thousand people in the United States have Down syndrome.
Many babies with Down syndrome have low muscle tone, so they need extra support when they are held. Their heads are smaller than average and they can have unusually shaped ears. Also, their eyes often angle upward.
People with Down syndrome often have other conditions. These include problems with their heart and with their breathing and hearing. A lot of these conditions, though, are treatable.
About one in every one hundred people with Down syndrome will develop leukemia, a cancer of the blood. But the National Down Syndrome Society says many of these cases are curable as well.
As a result, people with Down syndrome are living longer. In the early nineteen eighties they lived an average of just twenty-five years. Today the life expectancy for someone with Down syndrome is sixty years.
But with that longer life, people with Down syndrome may have an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease at an early age. An estimated twenty-five percent of those thirty-five and older show signs of the brain-wasting disease. It slowly destroys memory, thinking and reasoning skills. Alzheimer's is usually not found in the general population until people are over the age of sixty-five.
Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. Most people with Down syndrome are mildly to moderately retarded. Many, however, are able to attend regular classes with other students. And later, as adults, many are able to hold jobs and lead independent lives.
There are tests that can be done to look for Down syndrome during pregnancy.
The risk of having a baby with Down syndrome increases with the mother's age. The rate is one in every one thousand two hundred births at age twenty-five. At thirty-five it rises to one in three hundred fifty births. And at forty-five the rate is one in thirty
2.      Writing Assegment
a.       Based on the article above what is Down Syndrom?
b.      What a relationship between Down Syndrom with all the inner’s?
c.       Is people with down syndrom living longer? What is the reason?
d.      Is there symothom of Down syndrom for a baby and adult?
e.       What kind diseese Down Syndrom?
3.      Role Play
a.      Role Play 1
Some Troubling Symptoms
Patient: Good afternoon.
Doctor: Good afternoon. Have a seat. So, what have you come in for today?
Patient: Thank you. I'm feeling ill, I've got quite a bad cough, but I don't seem to have a fever.
Doctor     : I see. How long have you had these symptoms?
Patient     : Oh, I've had the cough for two weeks, but feeling ill just these
  past few days.
Doctor     : Are you having any other problems?
Patient     : Well, I've got a headache. I've also had a little bit of diarrhea.
Doctor     : Do you produce any phlegm when coughing?
Patient     : Sometimes, but it's usually pretty dry.
Doctor     : Do you smoke?
Patient     : Yes, a few cigarettes a day. Certainly no more than a half a pack a
  day.
Doctor     : How about allergies? Do you have any allergies?
Patient     : Not that I'm aware of.
Doctor     : Does your head feel stuffy?
Patient     : Yes, for the past few days.
Doctor     : OK. Now let's have a look. Could you please open your mouth
  and say 'ah'?

Key Vocabulary
Symptoms            : any feeling or ilness or mental change with is caused by a          
                               particular diseases to feel ill              :
cough                   : force air out from the lungs violently and noisly
fever                     : medical condition in which the body temperature is higher
                               than ussual the heart beat very fast.
headache              : a pain you feel inside in head
diarrhea                : illness when the body’s solid waste is more liquid than
                               ussual and comes and of the body more often
phlegm                 : a thick subtance in your nose
allergy                  : medical condition that causes you to react badly or fill ill
                               when you eat or touch a particular subtance.
stuffy                   : not having enough fresh air.



b.      Role Play 2
Dental Hygiene Sam: Hello.
Gina the Dental Hygienist: Hello Mr. Waters. I'm Gina. I'll be cleaning your teeth today.
Sam: Dr. Peterson has just filled two cavities. Why do I need a cleaning?
Gina the Dental Hygienist: Well, we have to make get your teeth and gums clean and disease free.
Sam: I guess that makes sense.
Gina the Dental Hygienist: Oral health leads to trouble-free teeth. I'll start off by removing plaque. Please lean back and open wide.
Sam: OK, I hope it's not too bad.
Gina the Dental Hygienist: Everybody gets plaque, even if they floss regularly. That's why it's important to come in twice a year for check-ups.
Sam: (getting his teeth cleaned, can't say much...)
Gina the Dental Hygienist: OK, please take a drink and rinse.
Sam: Ah, that's better.
Gina the Dental Hygienist: OK, now I'll apply some fluoride. Which flavor would you like?
Sam: I have a choice?
Gina the Dental Hygienist: Sure, we have mint, spearmint, orange or bubble-gum - that's for the kids.
Sam: I'd like to have the bubble-gum!
Gina the Dental Hygienist: OK. (applies fluoride) Now, let me give your teeth a final flossing.
Sam: What type of floss tape do you recommend?
Gina the Dental Hygienist: Personally, I like the flat tape. It's easier to get between the teeth.
Sam: OK, I'll remember that the next time I buy floss. How often should I floss?
Gina the Dental Hygienist: Everyday! Twice a day if possible! Some people like to floss after every meal, but that's not absolutely necessary.
Sam: (after finishing the cleaning) I feel much better. Thank you.
Gina the Dental Hygienist: My pleasure. Have a pleasant day, and remember to floss every day - at least once a day!

Key Vocabulary

dental hygienist    : a person who work with a dentist and cleans
gums                     : either of the areas of firm pink flash around teeth
plaque                   : harmful subtance that forms on the teeth
check-up               : a medical examination to test of general state of health
fluoride                 : compound thought to prevent teeth from decaying




CHAPTER II

A.                CONCLUSION
English as an international language is not only used just one country, but there are some other countries that also use it as a national language among English, American and Australian therefore the same as health sciences also have a few words in the English language as a term in the health sciences or not used only in one country. interests include aspects of health for all people on earth therefore important to know the meaning and significance of the English language that is in the world of health in order to make it easier to understand the meaning of seta know every word or term. Because of health sciences was not only coming from one of States but also from other countries sometimes use other languages



BIBLIOGRAFI

Zorica antic,. 2007,. Forward In Teaching English For Medical Purposes.: Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis
Http//:www.medical.com


English Morphology

FORMAL SENTENCES

One reason people lie, is to achieve personal power. Achieving personal power is helpful for someone, who pretends to be more confident than he really is.
/w/Ʌ/n/ /’r/i:/z/n/ /’p/i:/p/l/ /l/aɪ/ /ɪ/z/ /t/ə:/ /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/ /’p/ɜ:/s/ə/n/l/ /’paʊə(r)/ /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/i/ɧ/ /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/i/ɧ/ /h/e/l/p/f/ə/l/ /f/ə/(r)/ /’sɅmwɅn/ /hu:/ /prɪ’tend(s)/ /tə;/  /bi;/ /mɔ:(r)/  /’kɒnfɪdənt/  /en;/  / hi:/  /’ri:əli/  /iz/


1.    ONE  /w/Ʌ/n/
a.    Consonant /w/
                       i.    Place of Articulatory /w/
Bilabial : Bilabial consonants are produced by creating a closure with both lips.
                      ii.    Manner of articulatory /w/
p-bSemi-vowel : a voiced gliding sound in which the speech organs start by producing a waekly articulated vowel of comparatively small inherent sonority and immadiately change to another sound of equal or greater prominence.

b.    Vowel /Ʌ/
                       i.    Place of Articulatory /Ʌ/
Back vowels: Produced with the tongue in the back of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /Ʌ/
Open-mid back unrounded vowel [ʌ], a short sound as in one[wʌn]. The tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth, almost touching the soft palate.

c.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    Place of articulation /n/
Alveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /n/
Nasal : The mouth-passage is completeli blocked by raising the tip of the tounge to touch the teet-ridge as shown in picture, the soft palate is lowered so that, when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs, it passes out through the nose, the vocal cord are made to vibrate so that “voice” is produced. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as a voiced alveolar nasal consonant.
d.    Syllables
    Ϭ

   
          R


O            N       C

/w/        /Ʌ/      /n/
2.    REASON   /’r/i:/z/n/
a.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    Place of articulation /r/
Approximants : In an approximant, the articulators involved in the constriction are further apart still than they are for a fricative. The articulators are still closer to each other than when the vocal tract is in its neutral position, but they are not even close enough to cause the air passing between them to become turbulent.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /r/
Fricative : it is articulated by the tip of the tongue against the back part of the teeth-ridge, the main body of the tongue being kept low and the “front” being held concave to the palate, and the whole tongue being laterally contracted.

b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    Place of articulation /i:/
Front vowels : Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /i:/
Description of the manner of forming the vowel :
a)    Height of tongue: nearly “close”
b)    Part of tongue which is highest: centre of “front”
c)    Position of lips : spread or neutral
d)    Opening between the jaw: narrow medium.

c.    Consonant /z/
                       i.    Place of articulation /z/
Alveolar
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /z/
Fricative : it is articulated by the blade (or tip and blade) of the tongue against the teeth-ridge, the front of the tongue being at the same time slightly raises in the direction of the hard palate. The teeth are brought close together, and the passage between the blade of the tongue and the teeth-ridge is extremely narrow. The soft palate is in its raised pisotion, and the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that “voice” is produced.
d.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    see at “one”
e.    Syllable
                    Ϭ                   Ϭ

   
                          R             R


      O             N       C     N

  /’r/           /i:/       /z/    /n/

3.    PEOPLE   /’p/i:/p/l/
a.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    Place of articulation /p/
Labial
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /p/
Plosive : The air passage is completely blocked by closing thep-b lips and raising the soft palate, the air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, and when the lips are opened the air suddenly escapes from the mouth, and in doing so makes an explosive sound, the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiceless bilabial plosive consonant.

b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”

c.    Consonant /l/
                       i.    Place of articulation /l/
Alveolar : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth. English alveolar consonants are formed by raising the tip of the tongue to the alveolar ridge, which lies right behind the teeth. There are both fricatives and stops.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /l/
Lateral : articulated by the tip of the tongue touching the teeth-ridge in such a way that though there is complete closure in the middle of the mouth, yet a passage for the air in is raised position, the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that “voice” is produced. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sounds as voiced alveolar lateral consonant.
d.    Syllable
            Ϭ                    Ϭ

   
          R              R


O           N       C        N

/’p/       /i:/       /p/     /l/

4.    LIE  /l/aɪ/
a.    Consonant /l/
                       i.    See at “people”

b.    Dipthong /aɪ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /aɪ/
Front
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /aɪ/
a.    Height of tongue : low
b.    Part of tongue raised : the front
c.    Position of lips : sread to neutral
d.    Opening between the jaw : rather wide
The tongue-tip is touching or nearly touching the lower front teeth, and as in the case of all ordinary vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.
c.    Syllable
    Ϭ


          R


 O                N       

               /l/             /aɪ/

5.    IS    /ɪ/z/
a.    Vowel /ɪ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɪ/
Front vowels: Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɪ/
The manner of forming this English short /ɪ/
a.    Height of tongue : nearly “half close”
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the hinder part of the “front”
c.    Position of lips : spread or neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : narrow to medium
The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth, but smaal variations in its position do not materially affect the tamber. As with all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the cords are in vibration.

b.    Consonan /z/
                       i.    Place of articulation
Alveolar : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth. English alveolar consonants are formed by raising the tip of the tongue to the alveolar ridge, which lies vt-t-dright behind the teeth. There are both fricatives and stops.

                      ii.    Manner of articulation /z/
Fricative : the teeth are close together, the sound cannot be pronounced with the mouth wide open. The space between the blade of the tongue and the teeth-ridge is extremely narrow. The soft palate is in its raises position, and the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of /z/ may be expresses shortly by defining the sound as a breathed blade-alveolar fricative consonant.

6.    TO  /t/ə:/
a.    Consonant /t/
                       i.    Place of articulation /t/
Alveolar : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /t/
The air passage is completely blocked by raising the soft palate and raising vt-t-dthe tip of the tongue to touch has teeth-ridge, the air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, and when the tongue is removed from the teeth-ridge, the air suddenly escapes through the mouth, and in doing so makes an explosive sound, vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiceless alveolar plosive consonant.
b.    Vowel /ə;/
                       i.    Place of artiulation /ə;/
Central vowels: Produced with the tongue in the center of the mouth.
Manner of articulation /ə;/
a.    Height of tongue : about half-way between “open” and “close”
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the central part, culminating at the junction between “front” and “back”
c.    Position of lips : spread
d.    Opening between the jaws : narrow.
The tip of the tongue generally touches the base of the lower teeth, but as long as it is near the lower teeth, its precise position does not appreciably affect the quality of the sound. As in the case of all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position, and the vocal cords are in vibration.


c.    Syllable
    Ϭ


                R


O               N       

/t/             /ə:/

7.    ACHIEVE /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/
a.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ə/
Central vowels: Produced with the tongue in the center of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ə/
The approximate tongue-position of /ə/, its lip-position is similar.

b.    Consonant /tʃ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /tʃ/
Palato-alveolar
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /tʃ/
Africative : the air-passage is completely blocked by raising the soft palate and v-postalveolar-t-draising the tip and blade of the tongue into the position  shown in picture, that is to say a closed position in which the main part of the tingue is shaped nearly as for /ʃ/. While the “stop” is being held, air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, when the tongue is removed from the teeth-ridge, the air escapes through the mouth : the removal of the tongue is performed in such a way that the effect of the homorganic fricative /ʃ/ is audible before any following sound is reached the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The fromation of /tʃ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiceless palato-alveolar affricative consonant.

c.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”

d.    Consonant /v/
                       i.    Place of articulation /v/
Labiodental = lower lip and upper teeth.
Labiodental consonants are produced by
raising the lower lip to the upper teeth. English has only fricative labiodentals, and
no stops.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /v/
The vocal cords are made vibrate so that “voice” is produced during the articulation of the sound. The formation of /v/ may therefore be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced labio-dental fricative consonant.
e.    Syllable
                Ϭ                    Ϭ

   
          R              R


   O            N       C        N

      /ə/         /’tʃ/     /i:/    /v/
8.    PERSONAL   /’p/ɜ:/s/ə/n/l/
a.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    See at “people”

b.    Vowel /ɜ:/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɜ:/
Central vowels: Produced with the tongue in the center of the mouth.

                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɜ:/
The central part of the tongue is raised in order to make it. The tongue is raised to about mid-way between the “half-close” and “half-open” positions, or perhaps a shade higher than this. The lips are spread, the opening between the jaws is narrow, it is impossible to make the sound properly with a wide open mouth.

c.    Consonant /s/
                       i.    Place of articulation /s/
vt-t-dAlveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /s/
This sound is articulated by the blade (or tp and blade) of the tongue against the teeth-ridge, the “front” of the tongue being at the same time some what raised in the direction of the hard palate.
d.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
e.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    See at “people”
f.     Consonat /l/
                       i.    See at “people”
g.    Syllable
            Ϭ                        Ϭ                    Ϭ

   
          R                        R             R


O       N       O         N       C      N

        /’p/      /ɜ:/      /s/       /ə/      /n/     /l/

9.    POWER  /’paʊə(r)/
a.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    See at “people”
b.    Dipthong /aʊ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /aʊ/
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /aʊ/
The formation of the vowel with which the dipthong begins :
a.    Height of tongue : low
b.    Part of the tongue raised : the hinder part of the front
c.    Position of lips : neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : rather wide.
The tongue-tip is touching or nearly touching the lower front teeth, and as in the case of all ordinary vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.

c.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
d.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
e.    Syllable
    Ϭ

   
                  R


O           N       C

/’p/       /aʊ/   /ə(r)/

10. ACHIEVING   /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/i/ɧ/
a.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
b.    Consonant /tʃ/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
c.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”
d.    Consonant /v/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
e.    Vowel /i/
                       i.    Place of articulation /i/
Front vowels: Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /i/
The manner of forming this English /i/ :
a.    Height of tongue : nearly “half-close”
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the hinder part of the front
c.    Position of lips :spread or neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : narrow to medium.
The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth, but small variation in its position do not materially affect the tamber. As with all normal vowel, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords in vibration.

f.     Consonant /ɧ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɧ/
Velar : the back of the tongue raised to the soft palate ("velum"), the area right behind the palate.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɧ/
vt-k-gThe mouth-passage is completely blocked by raising the back of the tongue to touch the fore part of the soft palate shown in picture, the soft palate is in its lowered position, so that when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs it issues through the nose. The vocal cords are made to vibrate, so that “voice” is produced. The formation of this /ɧ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced velar nasal consonant.
g.    Syllable
Ϭ                      Ϭ                     Ϭ

   
   R                      R                     R


     N        C            N       O         N

    /ə/       /’tʃ/       /i:/     /v/     /i/ɧ/
11. HELPFUL  /h/e/l/p/f/ə/l/
a.    Consonant /h/
                       i.    Place of articulation /h/
Glottal
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /h/
The glottis is the opening between the vocal folds. In an /h/, this opening is narrow enough to create some turbulence in the airstream flowing past the vocal folds. For this reason, /h/ is often classified as a glottal fricative.
b.    Vocal /e/
                       i.    Place of articulation /e/
Front vowels: Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /e/
The manner of forming the sound :
a.    Height of tongue : intermediate between half-close and half-open.
b.    Part of the tongue raised : the front
c.    Position of lips : spread or neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : medium.
The tongue touches the lower teeth, but small variations in its position do not materially affect the tamber. As with all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.

c.    Consonant /l/
                       i.    See at “people”
d.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    See at “people”
e.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
f.     Consonant /f/
                       i.    Place of articulation /f/
vt-f-vLabiodental : lower lip and upper teeth
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /f/
The sound /f/ is formed by pressing the lower lip againts the upper teeth and allowing the air to force its way between them and through the interstices of the teeth, the soft palate is in its raised position and the glotis is left open. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as a breathed labio-dental fricative consonant.
g.    Syllable
    Ϭ                                  Ϭ

   
                      R                                   R


    O           N       C        O             N       C

/h/         /e/     /l/p/     /f/          /ə/      /l/


12. FOR /fə(r)/
a.    Consonant /f/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
b.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
c.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
d.    Syllable
   б


                           R


              O          N        

            /f/       /ə(r)/
13. SOMEONE  /sɅmwɅn/
a.    Consonant /s/
                       i.    See at “personal”
b.    Vowel /Ʌ/
                       i.    See at “one”
c.    Consonant /m/
                       i.    Place of articulation /m/
Bilabial : two lips. Bilabial consonants are produced by creating a closure with both lips.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /m/
The mouth-passage is completely blocked by closing the lips, the soft palate p-bis lowered so that, when air is emited by pressure from the lungs, it passes out through the nose, the tongue is held in a nuetral position, the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is produced. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced bi-labial nasal consonant.
d.    Consonant /w/
                       i.    See at “one”
e.    Vowel /Ʌ/
                       i.    See at “one”
f.     Consonant /n/
                       i.    See at “reason”
g.    Syllable
       б                                   б


                                      R                                  R


                  O            N       C         O           N       C

     /s/          /Ʌ/     /m/     /w/         /Ʌ/     /n/

14. WHO /hu:/
a.    Consonant /h/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
b.    Vowel /u:/
                       i.    Place of articulation /u:/
High vowels: Produced with the tongue high in the mouth.
Manner of articulation /u:/
a.    Height of tongue : nearly close
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the back
c.    Position of lips : close lip-rounding
d.    Opening between jaws : narrow to medium.
The tip of the tongue is generally, though not necessarily, somewhat reracted from the lower teeth. As in the case of all normal vowels, soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords as in vibration.
c.    Syllable
       б


                R


   O         N

                /h/        /u:/
15. PRETENDS /prɪ’tend(s)/
a.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    See at “people”
b.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
c.    Consonant /t/
                       i.    See at “people”
d.    Vowel /e/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
e.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    See at “one”
f.     Consonant /d/
                       i.    Place of articulation /d/
Alveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                      ii.    vt-t-dManner of articulation /d/
Plosive : d-phoneme is formed like the principal English /t/ except that the force of exhalation is waker and the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is hard. The formation of the principal English /d/ may therefore be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced alveolar plosive consonant.
g.    Syllable
     б                                   б


                                    R                                 R


                O           N       C          O           N       C

      /p/          /r/       /ɪ’/      /t/          /e/    /nd(s)/

16. TO  /tə;/ 
a.    Consonant /t/
                       i.    See at
b.    Vowel /ə:/
                       i.    See at “to”

c.    Syllable
        б


                 R


    O         N

    /t/       /ə;/ 
17. BE  /bi;/
a.    Consonant /b/
                       i.    Place of articulation /b/
Bilabial : two lips. Bilabial consonants are produced by creating a closure with both lips.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /b/
Plosive : The air passage is completely blocked by closing the lips and raising the soft palate, the air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, and when the lips are opened the air suddenly escapes from the mouth, and in doing so makes an explosive sound, the vocal cords made to vibrate. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voice bilabial plosive consonant.
b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”

18. MORE  /mɔ:(r)/  
a.    Consonant /m/
                       i.    Place of articulation /m/
Bilabial = two lips. Bilabial consonants are produced by creating a closure with both lips. 
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /m/
The mouth-passage is completely blocked by closing the tips, p-bthe soft palate is lowered so that, when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs, it passes out through the nose, the tongue is held in a neutral position, the vocal cords are made tovibrate so that voice is produced. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced bi-labial nasal  consonant.

b.    Vowel /ɔ:/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɔ:/
Back vowels: Produced with the tongue in the back of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɔ:/
The manner of forming the English long /ɔ:/
a.    Height of tongue : between half-open and open.
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the back.
c.    Position of lips : between  open and close lip-rounding.
d.    Opening between the jaws : medium to fairly wide.
The tip of the tongue is generally. Though not necessary, slightly retracted from the lower teeth. As with all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.
c.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
d.    Syllable
      б


                                     R


                O           N      C

/m/         /ɔ:/    /(r)/  

19. CONFIDENT  /’kɒnfɪdənt/  
a.    Consonant /k/
                       i.    Place of articulation /k/
Velar : the back of the tongue raised to the soft palate ("velum"), the area right behind the palate.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /k/
vt-k-gThe air passage is completely blocked by raising the back of the tongue to touch the fore part of the soft palate, the soft palate being at the same time raised so as to shut off the nose passage. The air is compressed by pressure from the lungs and when the contact of the tongue with tha palate is released by lowering the tongue, the air suddenly escapes through the mouth and in doing so makes an explosive sound, the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of the principal English /k/ may be expressed shortly by defining it is a voiceless velar plosive consonant.

b.    Vowel /ɒ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɒ/
Back vowels : Produced with the tongue in the back of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɒ/
Is sound in which the back of the tongue is lowered as far as passible and retracted as far as possible consistently with the sound being a vowel and in which the lips are not rounded.
c.    Syllable
    б                                   б                                   б


                                 R                                    R                            R


               O           N       C       O           N       C        O         N

     /’k/         /ɒ/      /n/      /f/          /ɪ/      /d/       /ə/       /nt/  

20. THAN  / ðen;/  
a.    Consonant /ð/
b.    Vowel /e/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
c.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    See at “one”
d.    Syllable                          б
      

                                                   R


                              O           N       C

                                             /ð/         /e/     /n;/  
21. HE /hi:/    
a.    Consonant /h/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”
c.    Syllable
       б


                               R


                  O         N

     /h/        /i:/    
22.  REALLY /’ri:əli/ 
a.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”
c.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
d.    Consonal /l/
                       i.    See at “people”
e.    Vowel /i/
                       i.    See at “achieving”
f.     Syllable
    б                      б


                            R                       R


               O         N          O         N

             /’r/       /i:ə/       /l/         /i/ 


23.  IS /iz/
a.    Vowel /i/
                       i.    See at “achieving”
b.    Consonant /z/
                       i.    See at “is”
c.    Syllable













INFORMAL SENTENCES

A.   Gonna = going to
Nothing gonna change your love for me.
/ˈnʌθ.ɪŋ/ /ˈgə.nə/ /tʃeɪndʒ/ /jɔː r / /lʌv/ /fɔː r / /miː/


1.    Nothing /ˈnʌθ.ɪŋ/
a.    Consonant /n/
                     i.    Place of articulation /n/
vt-t-dAlveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth. English alveolar consonants are formed by raising the tip of the tongue to the alveolar ridge, which lies right behind the teeth. There are both fricatives and stops.

                    ii.    Manner of articulation /n/
Nasal : The mouth-passage is completeli blocked by raising the tip of the tounge to touch the teet-ridge as shown in picture, the soft palate is lowered so that, when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs, it passes out through the nose, the vocal cord are made to vibrate so that “voice” is produced. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as a voiced alveolar nasal consonant.

b.    Vowel /Ʌ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /Ʌ/
Back vowels: Produced with the tongue in the back of the mouth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /Ʌ/
Open-mid back unrounded vowel [ʌ], a short sound as in one[wʌn]. The tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth, almost touching the soft palate.

c.    Consonant /θ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /θ/
Interdental : tongue between the teeth

                    ii.    Manner of articulation /θ/
The sound /θ/ is articulated by the tip of the tongue being fairly flatvt-theta-edh, the air passage between the tip of the tongue and the upper teeth is narrow, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of /θ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as breathed dental fricative consonant.
d.    Vowel /ɪ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /ɪ/
Front vowels: Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /ɪ/
The manner of forming this English short /ɪ/
a.    Height of tongue : nearly “half close”
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the hinder part of the “front”
c.    Position of lips : spread or neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : narrow to medium
The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth, but smaal variations in its position do not materially affect the tamber. As with all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the cords are in vibration.
e.    Consonant /ɧ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /ɧ/
Velar : the back of the tongue raised to the soft palate ("velum"), the area right behind the palate.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /ɧ/
vt-k-gThe mouth-passage is completely blocked by raising the back of the tongue to touch the fore part of the soft palate shown in picture, the soft palate is in its lowered position, so that when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs it issues through the nose. The vocal cords are made to vibrate, so that “voice” is produced. The formation of this /ɧ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced velar nasal consonant.
f.     Syllable
      б                             б


                                     R                       R


                 O           N       C     O         N

              /ˈn/          /ʌ/      /θ./    /ɪ/      /ŋ/

2.    Gonna /ˈgə.nə/
a.    Consonant /g/
                     i.    Place of articulation /g/
Velar : the back of the tongue raised to the soft palate ("velum"), the area right behind the palate.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /g/
vt-k-gVocal cords are pulled close together. The air passing through the glottis causes the vocal cords to vibrate. This is called the voicing state and sounds produced with this configuration of the vocal cords are called /g/.
b.    Vowel /ə/
                     i.    Place of articulation /ə/
Central vowels: Produced with the tongue in the center of the mouth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /ə/
The approximate tongue-position of /ə/, its lip-position is similar
c.    Syllable
    б                     б


    R                       R


               O         N         O         N

            /ˈg/        /ə./      /n/        /ə/
3.    Change /tʃeɪndʒ/
a.    Consonant /tʃ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /tʃ/
Palato alveolar
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /tʃ/
Africative : the air-passage is completely blocked by raising the soft palate and raising the tip and blade of the tongue into the position  shown in picture, that is to say a closed position in which the main part of the tingue is shaped nearly as for /ʃ/. While the “stop” is being held, air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, when the tongue is removed from the teeth-ridge, the air escapes through the mouth : the removal of the tongue is performed in such a way that the effect of the homorganic fricative /ʃ/ is audible before any following sound is reached the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The fromation of /tʃ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiceless palato-alveolar affricative consonant.

b.    Dipthong /eɪ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /eɪ/
Middle : Produced with the tongue in the middle of the mouth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /eɪ/
The dipthong /eɪ/ strarts at about English /e/ and moves in the direction of /i/.
c.    Consonant /dʒ/
                     i.    v-postalveolar-t-dPlace of articulation /dʒ/
Palato alveolar
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /dʒ/
The English /dʒ/ phoneme is formed like /tʃ/ except that the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is produced during the articulation of the sound may therefore be expressed shortly by defining is as voiced palato-alveolar affricate consonant.
d.    Syllable
      б


                     R


 O           N       C

/tʃ/         /eɪ/   /ndʒ/
4.    Your /jɔː r /
a.    Consonant /j/
                     i.    Place of articulation /j/
Palatal
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /j/
The front of the tongue is raised rather high in the direction of the hard palate, the lips are spread, the soft palate is in its raised position, the vocal cords are made to vibrate, so that voice is hard. The formation of /j/ may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as an unrounded palatal semi-vowel.

b.    Syllable
     б


                                    R


                O           N       C

               /j/          /ɔː/     /r/
5.    Love /lʌv/
a.    Consonant /v/
                     i.    Place of articulation /v/
Labiodental : lower lip and upper teeth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /v/
vt-f-vThe sound /v/ is formed by pressing the lower lip against the upper teeth and allowing the air to force its way between them and through the interstices of the teeth, the soft palate is in its raised position and the glottis is left open. The vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is produced during thr articulation of the sound. The formation of /v/ may therefore be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced labio-dental fricative consonant.
b.    Syllable
     б

  
                                    R


                O           N       C

               /l/          /ʌ/      /v/



6.    For /fɔː r/
a.    vt-f-vConsonant /f/
                     i.    Place of articulation /f/
Labiodental : lower lip and upper teeth
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /f/
The sound /f/ is formed by pressing the lower lip against the upper teeth and allowing the air to force its way between them and through the interstices of the teeth, the soft palate is in its raised position and the glottis is left open. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as a breathed labio-dental fricative consonant.
b.    Syllable
     б


                                    R


                O           N       C

               /f/          /ɔː/     /r/

B.   Gimme = Give me
Don’t gimme that pen.
/dəʊnt/ / /ˈgɪm.i /  /ðæt/  /pen/

1.    Don’t  /dəʊnt/
a.         Consonant /d/
                          i.    Place of articulation /d/
Alveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                         ii.    Manner of articulation /d/
Plosive : d-phoneme is formed like the principal English /t/ except that the vt-t-dforce of exhalation is waker and the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is hard. The formation of the principal English /d/ may therefore be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced alveolar plosive consonant
b.         Dipthong /əʊ/
                          i.    Place of articulation /əʊ/
                         ii.    Manner of articulation /əʊ/
The formation of the vowel with which the dipthong begins :
a.    Height of tongue : low
b.    Part of the tongue raised : the hinder part of the front
c.    Position of lips : neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : rather wide.
The tongue-tip is touching or nearly touching the lower front teeth, and as in the case of all ordinary vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.
c.         Consonant /n/
                          i.    See at “nothing”
d.         Consonant /t/
                          i.    See at “to”
e.         Syllable
     б


                                                R


                            O           N       C

   /d/         /əʊ/   /nt/
2.    Gimmi /ˈgɪm.i/  
a.         Consonant /g/
                          i.    See at “gonna”
b.         Vowel /ɪ/
                          i.    See at “nothing”
c.         Consonant /m/
                          i.    See at “someone”
d.         Vowel /i/
                          i.    See at “nothing”


e.         Syllable
              б                     б


    R                       R


             O         N         O         N

            /ˈg/        /ɪ/       /m./       /i/  

3.    That /ðæt/  
a.         Consonant /ð/
                          i.    Place of articulation /ð/
Dental : tongue between the teeth.
                         ii.    Manner of articulation /ð/
The principal member English phoneme represented by /ð/ is the voiced consonant coressponding the the breathed ɸ. Its formation may expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced dental fricative consonant.
b.         Vowel /æ/
                          i.    Place of articulation /æ/
                         ii.    Manner of articulation /æ/
c.         Consonant /t/
                          i.    See at “to”
d.         Syllable
  б


                             R


          O           N      C

/ð/          /æ/     /t/  


4.    Pen /pen/
a.         Consonant /p/
                          i.    See at “people”
b.         Vocal /e/
                          i.    See at “helpful”
c.         Consonant /n/
                          i.    See at “gonna”
d.         Syllable
б


      R


                      O           N      C

                     /p/          /e/     /n/


                               


SPEECH

Assalamualaikum wr wb.

I thank God for giving the health and time to share a knowledge on this historic day, the day of national education.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Indonesia is a big country, inhabited by hundreds of millions people includes islands spread widely. We have been independent since 1945, but I think Indonesia is not yet independent in terms of education. Although we have changed curricula almost every year, but it proved that the Indonesian education has not been able to compete with the developed countries. We tend to fall behind and have not been able to print a great human resources class as developed countries.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

I tried to draw a line to the back, and I get the irony which is really disappointing. In this very rich country, there are so many students drop out of school, do not have a uniform, and swim to go to school because of the broken bridge. It is an irony in the midst of our State assets.

Statistics of school buildings damaged and have not been improved are also too much. It is happening in the provinces that are far away from the center of government and gives continuing negative effect on the education system in the province itself.

Of course, a child who does not get an education will have difficulties in achieving a better stAndard of living in his future. You've seen that a lot of ignorance and poverty arise because so many crimes arising from poverty.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Education is a major key to get a better state order. Through proper and best education, we are able to print high-quality human resources, eradicate ignorance, and destroy poverty.

Therefore, let us together to be students and teachers that are diligent, sincere, and keep trying without the unyielding. We are Indonesia, a rich country that should have the best education. Do not give up on the fate of our nation today, and continues to struggle in gaining an independence education.

I would like to thank you all for giving me the opportunity to convey these short useful messages.

Thank you for all the attention,

Wassalamualaikum wr wb




SPEECH
[Assalamualaikum] [wr] [wb].
ˈaɪ ˈθæŋk ˈgɑd fər ˈgɪvɪŋ ðə ˈhelθ ənd ˈtaɪm tə ˈʃer ə ˈnɑlɪdʒ ˈɔn ˈðɪs hɪˈstɔrɪk ˈdeɪ, ðə ˈdeɪ əv ˈnæʃnəl ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən.
ˈleɪdiːz ənd [Gentlemen],
ˌɪndəˈniːʒə ɪz ə ˈbɪg ˈkəntriː, ɪnˈhæbətɪd ˈbaɪ ˈhəndrədz əv ˈmɪ(l)jənz ˈpiːpəl ɪnˈkluːdz ˈaɪləndz ˈspred [widely]. ˈwiː ˈhæv ˈbɪn ˌɪndəˈpendənt ˈsɪns 1945, ˈbət ˈaɪ ˈθɪŋk ˌɪndəˈniːʒə ɪz ˈnɑt ˈjet ˌɪndəˈpendənt ˈɪn ˈtərmz əv ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən. ɔlˈðoʊ ˈwiː ˈhæv ˈtʃeɪndʒd [curricula] ˈɔlˌmoʊst ˈevriː ˈjɪr, ˈbət ˈɪt ˈpruːvd ˈðæt ðə ˌɪndəˈniːʒən ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən ˈhæz ˈnɑt ˈbɪn ˈeɪbəl tə kəmˈpiːt ˈwɪð ðə dɪˈveləpt ˈkəntriːz. ˈwiː ˈtend tə ˈfɔl bɪˈhaɪnd ənd ˈhæv ˈnɑt ˈbɪn ˈeɪbəl tə ˈprɪnt ə ˈgreɪt ˈhjuːmən ˈriːˌsɔrsɪz ˈklæs əz dɪˈveləpt ˈkəntriːz.
ˈleɪdiːz ənd [Gentlemen],
ˈaɪ ˈtraɪd tə ˈdrɔ ə ˈlaɪn tə ðə ˈbæk, ənd ˈaɪ ˈget ðiː ˈaɪrəniː ˈwɪtʃ ɪz ˈriːliː ˌdɪsəˈpɔɪntɪŋ. ˈɪn ˈðɪs ˈveriː ˈrɪtʃ ˈkəntriː, ˈðer ɑr ˈsoʊ ˈmeniː ˈstuːdənts ˈdrɑp ˈæʊt əv ˈskuːl, ˈduː ˈnɑt ˈhæv ə ˈjuːnəˌfɔrm, ənd ˈswɪm tə ˈgoʊ tə ˈskuːl bɪˈkɔz əv ðə ˈbroʊkən ˈbrɪdʒ. ˈɪt ɪz ən ˈaɪrəniː ˈɪn ðə ˈmɪdst əv ɑr ˈsteɪt ˈæˌsets.
stəˈtɪstɪks əv ˈskuːl ˈbɪldɪŋz ˈdæmɪdʒd ənd ˈhæv ˈnɑt ˈbɪn ɪmˈpruːvd ɑr ˈɔlsoʊ ˈtuː ˈmətʃ. ˈɪt ɪz ˈhæpənɪŋ ˈɪn ðə ˈprɑvənsɪz ˈðæt ɑr ˈfɑr əˈweɪ ˈfrəm ðə ˈsentər əv ˈgəvər(n)mənt ənd ˈgɪvz [continuing] ˈnegətɪv ɪˈfekt ˈɔn ðiː ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən ˈsɪstəm ˈɪn ðə ˈprɑvəns ɪtˈself.
əv ˈkɔrs, ə ˈtʃaɪld ˈhuː ˈdoʊz ˈnɑt ˈget ən ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən wəl ˈhæv [difficulties] ˈɪn əˈtʃiːvɪŋ ə ˈbetər ˈstændərd əv ˈlɪvɪŋ ˈɪn (h)ɪz ˈfjuːtʃər. [You've] ˈsiːn ˈðæt ə ˈlɑt əv ˈɪgnrəns ənd ˈpɑvərtiː əˈraɪz bɪˈkɔz ˈsoʊ ˈmeniː ˈkraɪmz əˈraɪzɪŋ ˈfrəm ˈpɑvərtiː.
ˈleɪdiːz ənd [Gentlemen],
ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən ɪz ə ˈmeɪdʒər ˈkiː tə ˈget ə ˈbetər ˈsteɪt ˈɔrdər. ˈθruː ˈprɑpər ənd ˈbest ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən, ˈwiː ɑr ˈeɪbəl tə ˈprɪnt [high-quality] ˈhjuːmən ˈriːˌsɔrsɪz, ɪˈrædəˌkeɪt ˈɪgnrəns, ənd dɪˈstrɔɪ ˈpɑvərtiː.
ˈðerˌfɔr, ˈlet ˈəs təˈgeðər tə ˈbiː ˈstuːdənts ənd ˈtiːtʃərz ˈðæt ɑr ˈdɪlədʒənt, sɪnˈsɪr, ənd ˈkiːp ˈtriːɪŋ wɪˈðæʊt ðiː ˌənˈjiːldɪŋ. ˈwiː ɑr ˌɪndəˈniːʒə, ə ˈrɪtʃ ˈkəntriː ˈðæt ʃəd ˈhæv ðə ˈbest ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən. ˈduː ˈnɑt ˈgɪv ˈəp ˈɔn ðə ˈfeɪt əv ɑr ˈneɪʃən təˈdeɪ, ənd kənˈtɪnjuːz tə ˈstrəgəl ˈɪn ˈgeɪnɪŋ ən ˌɪndəˈpendəns ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən.


ˈaɪ wəd ˈlaɪk tə ˈθæŋk ˈjuː ˈɔl fər ˈgɪvɪŋ ˈmiː ðiː ˌɑpərˈtuːnətiː tə kənˈveɪ [these] ˈʃɔrt ˈjuːsfəl ˈmesɪdʒɪz.
ˈθæŋk ˈjuː fər ˈɔl ðiː əˈtenʃən,
[Wassalamualaikum] [wr] [wb]