Tuesday, September 27, 2016

ENGLISH CODE MIXING ON THE LANGUAGE ON NOVEL “LIFE AND ONE MILLION TROUBLE”



ENGLISH CODE MIXING ON THE LANGUAGE ON NOVEL
“LIFE AND ONE MILLION TROUBLE”


ARIF RIDIAWAN
NIM. TE. 11. 0551

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
TARBIYAH SCIENCE AND TEACHER TRAINING FACULTY
THE STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES
SULTHAN THAHA SAIFUDDIN JAMBI
2014

I.                   INTRODUCTION
Language is very essential in human life. Through language human can communicate to fulfill their needs and get important information. This statement is supported by Haliday (in Coupland and Jaworski, 1997: 31) that a significant fact about the behavior of human beings in relation to their social environment is that a large part of linguistic behavior. It means that human beings cannot be separated from their linguistic behavior because it is used for communicate.
Human language is natural phenomenon, and language learning is instinctive in childhood. In their natural form, human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for the symbols in order to communicate with others through the sense. Though there are thousands of human languages, they all share a number of properties from which there are no known deviations. As a social creature, human needs language. Language and society are two different things that have a close relationship with each other. Society needs languages to communicate between its members, without languages there will be no society in the world. People have to use language for making what they mean be understood by others.
Code mixing is very important for everyone, especially for people who leave in multilingual society. Sometimes they need some languages to speak with other people around them. In a society, people use some languages to express what they feel or want to do. They are few reasons why people use foreign language such us showing their knowledge and emphasizing what they want. In a country that has so many cultures and tribes like Indonesia, it is a common thing if people use more than two languages in their daily conversation. When people do this, they use code switching and code mixing.
Switching and mixing one to another is a complex phenomenon, in which it may relate to many factors, and purpose are said to trigger code switching or mixing. There is no proper word or expression in the language being used. Holmes (1992: 1) states that the way people talk are influenced by the social context in which they are talking. Furthermore she also states that code switching and code mixing as part of sociolinguistics phenomenon are concerned with the relationship between language and the context in which those are used. People have to select appropriate language to a context to make process communication easy. In other word linguists give definition that sociolinguistic is the branch of linguistics and in other description, and the last Chaer and Agustina say that sociolinguistic is the study of the language operation; its purpose is to investigate how is the convention of the language use related to the social factors in speech community (Chaer and Leonie, 1995:5).


II.                LITERATURE
In order to have a good analysis, the study needs to be supported by relevant theories. The underlying theories of this study are sociolinguistic, speech community, and code mixing. This chapter includes the nature of code mixing, conversational functions and factors influencing code mixing.



                                Table    
 
A.                Sociolinguistics
When people interact with others in society at anytime and anywhere they must use a language. Without a language, people will find some troubles when they do their activities and toward the other. There is no a person or society without a language. The role of language among the people in this life is very crucial. The study of linguistics reveals that language and society cannot be separated to be investigated. It develops into sociolinguistics or the sociology of language. Fishman (in Chaer and Agustina, 2004:3) says that, “sociolinguistics is the study of characteristics of the language varieties, the characteristics of their functions, and the characteristics of language varieties, the characteristics of their functions, and the characteristics of the speaker as these three constantly interact, change and change one another within a speech community”. In addition, Holmes (2001:1) says that sociolinguistics is concerned with the relationship between language and the context in which it is used. Examining the way people use language in different social context provides a wealth information about the way language works, as well as about the social relationships in a community, and the way people signal aspects of their social identity through the language.
Sociolinguistics actually does not discuss a structure of language, but it focuses on how a language is used, so it could play its function well. From this statement, we can get a description that people also face language conflicts before sociolinguistics appears. So it is clear now that the role of sociolinguistics is to manage a language as its functions in society, or in other words sociolinguistics deals with a language as means of communication.

1.             Speech Community
Human beings are social beings who are always committed to a certain group of people called a community. A particular community has its own characteristics, including the way of its communication. This community is called speech community.
The members of the same speech community should share linguistic norms.  That is, they share understanding and values of attitudes toward language varieties present in their community. A speech community is no more than some kind of social group whose speech characteristics are of interest and can be described in a coherent manner (Wardaugh, 1986:113). One example of this phenomenon is language switching and mixing
B.                CODE MIXING
Code mixing: preferred. As many have pointed out, however, the term code-mixing it tends to attract negative associations, giving (especially lay readers) the value-loaded impression that ‘mixing’ languages is symptomatic of bad or pathological language behavior. According to Wardhaugh, 1998: 108 a code mixing is switch of codes within a simple utterance, without any associated topic changes. Code Mixing suggest the speaker is mixing up codes indiscriminately or perhaps because of incompetence, whereas the switches are very well motivated in relation to the symbolic or social meanings of two codes. (Janet Holmes 1992: 50).


1.             Form of Code Mixing
The form of code mixing can be taken from the definition of code mixing itself. Fasold as cited by Chaer and Agustina (2004) says that code mixing only occur when someone uses only one word or phrase that different from the base language. From that definition, the forms of code mixing is word and phrase.
·         Code Mixing in the form of word
Code mixing in the form of word is simply in the insertion of another language that different from the base language in a single sentence or single utterance. From oxford dictionary, word means written or spoken unit language. Most of the code mixing occurs in the form of word. For example from the dialogue and text in the novel:
Dialogue 1: Raffi: kenapa sih kita mesti backstreet kayak gini?
Yuki: jadi, kamu nggak suka kalau kita backstreet?. (page 23)
Dialogue 2: Yoshi: habis ini, yang mana lagi, ki?
Yuki: kamu pelajari yang aku stabile aja
Yoshi: terus loe?
Yuki: aku udah cukup kok
Yoshi: thanks yah. (page 29)
Text: Ring tone doraemon terdengar bordering dari hand-phone Yuki. (page 9)
From that example, the word backstreet, thanks, ringtone, hand-phone is a word in English. Here the authors insert English word in Indonesian utterances.
·         Code Mixing in the form of phrase
From dictionary we know that phrase means short group of word or group of word without a verb that form part of sentence. A phrase must contain at least two words. A phrase is different from clause because a phrase doesn’t have a verb. This is an example of code mixing in the form of phrase from text in the novel:
Text 1: Semua siswa tertunduk takut. Kelas hening sesaat. Tapi, tiba-tiba Krisna dan teman sekelompoknya yang lain masuk. Dengan memegang sebuah kue ulang tahun, Mario mengomando temannya untuk menyanyikan lagu happy birthday untuk Bu Ratna. (page 35)
Text 2: Selain suka baca, Yuki juga adalah salah satu pecinta dunia tulis. Cita-citanya adalah menjadi seorang dokter sekaligus novelis muda yang melahirkan novel best seller. (page 45).
In this example, the author put English phrase happy birthday and best seller in Indonesian sentences. On the other hand clause means group of word that contains of subject and verb. So, it is like a sentence but not as complete as sentences.
2.             Several Factors of conducting Code Mixing.
Several reasons why the author mixes code are because of situation, social, cultural, and individual reason.
a.  Situation Factors
There are some situation factors that caused the speaker mix their code or language, as follows:
·      The writer and the reader, which consider the social status.
·      Context of verbal, which consider two aspects they are people who include in the conversation language.
·      Production of language.
·      The subject of conversation.
·      Location of the conversation such as in the office, home, school, campus, etc.
b.    Social Factors
The social factors involve the participants, topic, situation, domain, and setting, which indeed almost the situation reason.
a)    Participant
In making communication the participant is important role. The basic description question to answer the participant is the one who is talking part in the event. As a members of society may be characterized by dimension of status and solidarity.
·  Status
Relative status in particular role relationship often involves complex considering of several factors and relatives importance such characteristic as age, sex, occupation, kinship and social class.
·  Solidarity
Solidarity is defined as degree of intimacy between the speakers and the addresses.
b)   Topic of Conversation
Topic is also one of reason why people do code mixing. It can be happen both formal and informal situation. One example is when the lecturer is joking in the class, suddenly he or she mixes in to other language, but then he or she will bring into serious topic again.
c)   Situation
There are two forms of situation namely formal and informal situations. People use different language in different situation.
d)  Domain
Gumperz sees domain as a cluster of social situation, which are typically constrained by a common set behavioral rules. The five domains in the study are friendship, religion, and education.
e)   Setting of conversation
Another social factor that constrains linguistic usage is setting which includes location, time, and physical aspect.
c.    Cultural Factors
The cultural factors that influence the use of code mixing refer to values, attitudes, and belief about both society and language which affect the rules of usage within a speech community. Attitudes reflect what people believe, fell, and want. Beliefs here are about who or what may be communicated with e.g. with respect to language, including the positive and negative value.
d.   Individual factors
Individual factors related to individual preference and skill. One person has reason in mixing the language because she or he wants it. It may because she or he wants to show the addressee about his or her status, prestige, elitism, and modernity. Another person has another reason, it may because he or she has ability to mix the language to master another language, but sometimes it because he or she is not able to master in one language.

III.             DATA ANALYSIS
This chapter will discuss the analysis of the data which have been collected. In this study, the source of the data is “Life and one million trouble” novel. Here, the writer reading the novel and taking note it on paper.
A.    Finding the data
The writer analyzes terms of languages that appears in the “life and one million trouble” novel by using code mixing table. The writer analyzed the dialog of the characters then classified it into the table of form of code mixing. The table is divided into two tables those are the table of code mixing in word form and code mixing in phrase form. The table can be seen bellow:
No
Data Analyzing
Code-Mixing the form of word
Code-Mixing the form of phrase
1.
Dear diary (page 7)
ü  

2.
Ring tone Doraemon terdengar berdering dari hand phone Yuki (page 9)


ü  
3.
By the way, kamu keluarnya kapan?” Tanya Raffi (page 11)


ü  
4.
“ Udah bangun, Cin? Oh yah, tadi aq ga sempet pamit coz aq mau ganggu qmuw. Sorry yah….” Sms Raffi (page 15)

ü  

5.
“Udah kok! Skrang qmu mkn aja n abis itu istirahat… aq mau ngerjain tugas nih…, good night, cin…” (page 16)


ü  
6.
Malam itu Yuki seakan mendapat ilham. Keadaannya membaik begitu cepat. Emang yah, yang namanya cinta bisa bikin orang sakit jadi sehat, orang sehat jadi sakit, and banyak keajaiban lainnya (page 17)


ü  

7.
“Pasti have fun banget tuh,” Lola pun ikut mengeluarkan suaranya

ü  
8.
“Kenapa sih kita harus backstreet kayak gini?” Tanya Raffi (page 23)

ü  

9.
Yuki: aku udah cukup kok
Yoshi: thanks yah. (page 29)

ü  

10.
“Udah dech Raf, Yoshi itu teman kita. Ngapain sih kamu pake jealous sama dia?” (page 30)

ü  

11.
Semua siswa tertunduk takut. Kelas hening sesaat. Tapi, tiba-tiba Krisna dan teman sekelompoknya yang lain masuk. Dengan memegang sebuah kue ulang tahun, Mario mengomando temannya untuk menyanyikan lagu happy birthday untuk Bu Ratna. (page 35)









ü  
12.
“Warna pink-lah,” jawab Yuki (page 39)

ü  

13.
“Bukannya pelit, Neng. Tapi, mala mini tuh aku mesti nulis buat mading. Besok deadline loh.”

ü  

14.
Kecuali kalau supir angkotnya rese, bawa mobilnya nggak jelas. So, kadang Yuki nggak bisa baca, bawaannya malah pusing dan mual. (page 45)

ü  

15.
Selain suka baca, Yuki juga adalah salah satu pecinta dunia tulis. Cita-citanya adalah menjadi seorang dokter sekaligus novelis muda yang melahirkan novel best seller. (page 45).



ü  
16.
The first,” Anggie mulai memutar pulpennya. (page 49)



ü  
17.
“Karena dia itu manis, ngegemesin, and solid. Satu lagi, dia itu juga cuek tapi perhatian,” Yuki berbunga-bunga. (page 53)


ü  
18.
“Itu, bule itu!, yang gayanya keren abizzz. Yang pakai i-pod itu lho!” Yuki menunjuk bule yang dimaksud. (page 60)

ü  

19.
“Cakepan yang itu kaleee!!!” Minah menunjuk seorang bule yang lagi asyik jogging. (page 60)

ü  

20.
Sorry ya, Ki. Tadi aku kurang cepat negor kamu,” kata Imam yang tiba-tiba nongol. (page 61)

ü  

21.
Guys, udah selesai belom?” Tanya Yuki sesampainya di depan pintu mading. (page 65)

ü  

22.
God…. Aku telat!!!” teriak Yuki sambil berlari menuju kamar mandinya. (page 68)

ü  

23.
“Kamu kan tau sendiri kalau aku tuh nggak suka di antar jemput. Kayak mami aja,” kata Yuki sambil memakai lipgloss di bibirnya. (page 70)


ü  

24.
“Pokoknya dia anak The Fly,” jawab Ramon. (page 74)


ü  
25.
Padahal Yuki kan udah berusaha carmuk (Cari muka) sama tuh cowok. Sering mondar-mandir lah di depannya, ngedeketin adeknya lha… tapi dasar tuh cowok sok cool banget. (page 79)


ü  

26.
“Subhanallah, Alhamdulillah, Allahuakbar… ya Allah… ciptaanmu yang satu ini manis, guanteng, tampan, cakep, cool, handsome, imut, ngegemesin banget sih…” jerit Yuki dalam hati sambil terus mengamati mukanya si Denis. (page 80)



ü  

27.
My God, ya tuhan, ya Allah, ya Rabbi, ya Gusti….,” Teriaknya dalam hati. (page 81)


ü  
28.
So sweet, seperti sinetron aja nih… (page 92)


ü  
29.
Namanya aja playboy. (page 92)
ü  

30.
Kerjaanya bikin aku sport jantung aja, tahu nggak. (page 93)


31.
“Aku sih setuju-setuju aja. Lagi pula aku suka sama kamu kok,” jawab Imam to the point.


ü  
32.
“Kecuali kamu Anggie! Stop di situ. Key..?”kata lola sambil ngasih kode ke Ramon buat masuk kelas. (page 106)

ü  

33.
“Hallo. Assalamualaikum,” Yuki akhirnya menekan tombol answer yang tertera di layar HP-nya. (page 111)

ü  

34.
Semoga sih ending-nya bahagia. (page 118)

ü  

35.
“Ok. Please, jangan ngmong ke Yuki yah,” pinta Troy. (page 118)

ü  

36.
“Maksud kamu?” Tanya Yuki semakin bingung ngedengerin celoteh Minah yang nggak connect di otaknya. (page 120)


ü  

37.
Suaranya tuh udah seperti make dua speaker. (page 133)

ü  

36.
“Lola? Berani banget sih? Aku aja mesti mikir dua juta kali buat miscall atau SMS Ramon yang udah jelas-jelas pacar aku,” ungkap Anggie. (page 133)


ü  

39.
Mereka berdua berjalan menuju Food Court yang ada di lantai dasar mall itu. (page 135)



ü  
40.
“Lo juga suka makan seafood kan?” Tanya Troy. (page 135)


41.
“Gue pesan nasi goreng capcay-nya satu sama mie titi seafood-nya satu. Terus es cappuccino-nya dua,” (page 135)



ü  
42.
“Wah… manis sekali…! Kok tahu sih kalau aku suka pig?” Tanya Yuki. (page 142)

ü  

43.
“Tentang apa, Neng? Eh salah.. tentang siapa maksudnya, Tri, atau Aswin?” Tanya Yuki yang udah tahu kalau sahabatnya itu pasti pngen curhat masalah love. (page 151)


ü  

44.
Yah udah, aku sih fine-fine aja. (page 151)
ü  

45.
Guys, ada kabar buruk! Kelas kita bakal di rolling. Dan denger-denger 2 di antara kita bakal pindah ke IPA 1,” teriak Idham. (page 153)


ü  

46.
Dia tak kalah shock-nya, wajahnya pucat dengan keringat dingin yang mengucur deras dari dahinya. (page 163)

ü  

47.
Kami dikenal friendly dan solid. (page 183)

ü  

48.
Setelah mematikan laptop, Yuki memeriksa inbox di handphone-nya. (page 183)

ü  

49.
Sedangkan Tiwi sendiri sepertinya bad mood-nya lagi kambuh. (page 191)


ü  
50.
“Bisa aja. Tapi btw kenapa sih nanyanya gitu. Lagi falling in love yah?” jawab Yuki. (page 191)


ü  
51.
I love you, Ki,” kata pria itu. (page 205)

ü  

In the table the writer mix the language with English in the text and dialogue of the character in the novel. Therefore, the type of the dialogue is outer code mixing. The vocabularies they use are; “Dear diary, Ring tone, hand phone, By the way, sorry, good night, and, have fun, backstreet, thanks, jealous, happy birthday, pink, deadline, so, best seller, the first, solid, I-pod, jogging, guys, god, lip gloss, the fly, cool, handsome, my god, so sweet, playboy, sport, to the point, stop, answer, ending, please, connect, speaker, miscall, food court, mall, seafood, cappuccino, pig, love, fine-fine, rolling, shock, friendly, laptop, inbox, bad mood, falling in love, and I love u.
B.      Discussion
From the data finding, the researcher can state that the characters basically use Indonesian language and mix it with English. Most of the characters in the novel are from Indonesian. This novel has Indonesian language as its first language, and English as its second language. The writer usually mixes the conversation with English.
All the data of the conversations found that the type of the conversations are outer code mixing, they basically use their native language, Indonesian language than mix it with their second language, English language. There are many conversations in which the author mixed English words, some conversations are mixed with English phrases, in short. Most of the characters generally insert English words in to their conversation and then most of them also often insert English phrase
C.     Conclusion
From the data obtained by the researcher above, it can be concluded that generally the author used Indonesian language for first language, in the dialogues of the character also use English language. They mix their language to the other language namely Indonesian into foreign language.
There are two kinds of form of code mixing used by the dialogues and text in the novel in their communication. There are Code Mixing in the form of word and Code Mixing in the form of phrase.
All of the code mixing done by the dialogues and text in the novel above was caused by some reasons like they used code mixing because of their emotion close personal relationship , the different their education, to make identification refers to the kinds their language.
REFERENCES
Holmes, Jannet (2001), ’An Introduction to Sociolinguistics’. New York Longman publishing.
Made Iwan Indrawan Jendra. (2010). Sociolinguistics the Study of Societies Language. Yogyakarta : Graha Ilmu
Wardhaugh, Ronald (1998), ‘An Introduction to Sociolinguistics fifth edition’. Blackwell Publishers
Rasyid, Ishlah (2009), ‘live and one million trouble novel’.
http://fathurrokhmancenter.wordpress.com/sosiolingiustik/
Wikipedia-dictionary.com

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