Wednesday, October 12, 2016

Contoh Analysis English Phonology

Formal
A point to be stressed at the outset is that many reading lessons will not conform to a pattern. Because different texts need diffrent treatment, we cannot expect to handle them all within a single convenient framework. Moreover, not all our lessons will deal with only a single text. If we are interested in training a specific skill, such as the skill of prediction, we may design exercises to practise it which make use of several texts, none of them to be studied very thoroughly. Some skill may be practised by study sentences.

Analysis
The phoneme                                            
·         Spelling
[ei] [pi:/ou/ai/en/ti:] [ti:/i:] [es/ti:/i:/es/es/i:/di] [ei/ti:] [ti:/eitc/i:] [ou/yu:/ti:/es/i:/ti:] [ai/es] [ti:/eitc/ei/ti:] [em/ei/en/wai] [a:/i:/ei/di/ai/en/ji] [el/i:/es/es/en/es] [dubleyu/ai/el/el] [en/ou/ti:] [si/ou/en/ef/ou/a:/em] [ti:/ou] [ei] [pi:/ei/ti:/ti:/a:/en]. [bi/i:/si/ei/yu:/es/i:] [di/ai/ef/ef/i:/a:/en/ti:] [ti:/i:/eks/ti:/es] [en/i:/i:/di] [di/ai/ef/ef/i:/a:/en/ti:] [ti:/a:/i:/ei/ti/em/i:/en/ti:], [dubleyu/i:] [si/ei/en/en/ou/ti:] [i:/eks/pi/i:/si/ti:] [ti:/ou] [eitc/ei/en/di/el/i:] [ti:/eitc/i:/em] [ei/el/el] [dubleyu/ai/ti:/eitc/ai/en] [ei] [es/ai/en/ji/el/en] [si/ou/en/vi/i:/en/i:/ai/en/ti] [ef/a:/ei/em/i:/dubleyu/ou/a:/kei]. [em/ou/a:/i:/ou/vi/i:/a:], [en/ou/ti:] [ei/el/el] [ou/yu/a:] [el/i:/es/es/ou/en/es] [dubleyu/ai/el/el] [di/i:/ei/el] [dubleyu/ai/ti:/eitc] [ou/en/el/wai] [ei] [es/ai/en/ji/el/i:] [ti:/i:/eks/ti:/es]. [ai/ef] [dubleyu/i:] [ei/a:/i:] [ai/en/ti:/i:/a:/i:/es/ti:/i:/di] [ai/en] [ti/a:/ei/ai/en/ai/en/ji] [ei] [es/pi/i:/si/ai/ef/ai/si] [es/kei/ai/el/el] [es/yu/si/eitc] [ei/es] [ti:/eitch/i:] [es/kei/ai/el/el] [ou/ef] [pi/a:/i:/di/a:/si/ti:/ai/ou/en] [dubleyu/i:] [em/ei/wai] [di/i:/es/ji/ai/en] [i:/eks/i:/a:/si/ai/es/i:/es] [ti:/ou] [pi/a:/ei/si/ti/ai/es/i:] [ai/ti:] [dubleyu/eitc/ai/si/eitc] [em/ei/kei/i:] [yu/es/i:] [ou/ef] [es/i:/vi/i:/a:/ei/el] [ti:/i:/eks/ti:], [en/ou/en/i:] [ou/ef] [ti:/eitc/i:/em] [ti:/ou] [bi/i:] [es/ti:/yu/di/ai/i:/di] [vi/i:/a:/wai] [ti:/eitc/ou/a:/ou/yu/ji/eitc/elwai]. [es/ou/em/i:] [es/kei/i:/el/el] [em/ei/wai] [bi/i:] [pi/a:/ei/si/ti:/es/i:/di] [bi/wai] [es/ti:/yu/di/wai] [es/i:/en/ti:/i:/en/si/i:/es].
·         Phonetic

/ə;/ /pɔɪnt/ /tu:/ /bi/ /stresd/ /ət/ /ðə:/ /’aʊtset/ /ɪz/ /ðӕt/ /’meni/ /’ri:dɪɳ/ /’lesnz/ /wɪl/ /nɒt/ /kən’fɔ:m/ /tu;/ /ə;/ /’pӕtn/. /bɪ’kɒz/ /’dɪfrənt/ /tekst/ /ni:d/ /’dɪfrənt/ /’tri:tmənt/, /wi:/ /’kӕnɒt/ /ɪk’spekt/ /tu:/ /’hӕndl/ /ðəm/ /ɔ:l/ /wɪ’ðɪn/ /ə/ /sɪɳgl/ /kən’vi:niənt/ /freɪmwɜk/. /mɔ:r’əʊvə/, /nɒt/ /ɔ:l/ /ɑ:(r)/ /’lesnz/ /wɪl/ /di:l/ /wɪɵ/ /’əʊnli/ /ə/ /sɪɳgl/ /tekst/ . /ɪf/ /wi:/ /ɑ:(r)/ /ɪntrəstid/ /ɪn/ /treɪniɳ/ /ə/ /spə’sɪfɪk/ /skɪl/ , /sʌtʃ/ /əz/ /ðə:/ /skɪl/ /əv/ /prɪ’dɪkʃn/, /wi:/ /meɪ/ /dɪ’zaɪn/ /’eksəsaɪz/ /tu:/ /’prӕktɪs/ /ɪt/ /wɪtʃ/ /meɪk/ /ju:z/ /əv/ /’sevrəl/ /tekst/, /nʌn/ /əv/ /ðəm/ /tu:/ /bi/ /’stʌdi:d/ /’veri/ /’ɵʌrəli/. /sʌm/ /skɪl/ /meɪ/ /bi/ /’prӕktɪs/ /baɪ/ /’stʌdi/ /’sentəns/

·         Vowels

Ø  Front vowels
The vowels are front, produse with the the front of the tongue raised towards the
hard palate, in the paragraph included front vowels are:

o   Is, will, expect, within, single, if, in, skill, it, by                   = ɪ
o   That, pettern, handle, practised,                                          = ӕ
o   Reading, need, we                                                                 = i:
o    Make, may,                                                                              = eɪ
Ø  Back vowels

Back vowels have the back of tongue raised, towards the soft palate or velum, , in the paragraph included back vowels are:

o   Not                                                                                             = ɒ
o   Outset                                                                                       = ʊ
o   Are                                                                                             = ɑ:
o   All                                                                                              = ɔ:
o   To                                                                                              = u:
Ø  Central vowels

Vowels between front and back, and involve raising of th body of the tongue towards the area where the hard and soft palate join. , in the paragraph included central vowels are:

o   A, at, them , as, of, only                                                                   = ə
o   None, studied                                                                                   =  ʌ

Ø  High vowels

Have the tongue raise most towards the roof of the mouth. If the raising was significanly greater, then fiction would be produse, making a fricative consonant, not a vowels, the high vowels are:

o   Is, will, expect, within, single, if, in, skill, it, by                   = ɪ
o   Reading, need, we                                                                 = i:
o   Outset                                                                                       = ʊ
o   To                                                                                              = u:

Ø  Low vowels
Where the tongue isn;t raised at all, but rather lowwered from its raising position. Low vowels are :

o   That, pettern, handle, practised,                                          = ӕ
o   Are                                                                                             = ɑ:


Ø  Mid vowels
These is further class intermediate between high and low vowels. These can if necassary be further subclassified as high mid or low mid depending on whether they are nearer yhe high end of the scale, or nearer the low end. Mid vowels are:

o   Make, may,                                                                               = eɪ
o   Not                                                                                             = ɒ
o   All                                                                                              = ɔ:
o   A, at, them , as, of, only                                                         = ə
o   None, studied                                                                          =  ʌ

·         Monopthongs and dipthongs

Most of the vowels so far have been monopthongs, in which the quality of the vowels stays fairly consistent from the begining of its production to the end. There also several diphtongs that change in quality during their production, and are typically transcribe with one starting point, and a quite different end point, as might be expected from the describtion, diphthongs are typically long vowels.
And are the diphthongs:

o   Point                                                                                         = ɔɪ
o   Outset                                                                                       = aʊ



·         Consonant
o   Manner of articulation
Stop 

A stop consonant completely cuts off the airflow through the mouth. In the consonants [t], [d], and [n], the tongue tip touches the alveolar ridge and cuts off the airflow at that point. In [t] and [d], this means that there is no airflow at all for the duration of the stop. In [n], there is no airflow through the mouth, but there is still airflow through the nose. We distinguish between

    nasal stops, like [n], which involve airflow through the nose, and
    oral stops, like [t] and [d], which do not.

Fricatives

In the stop [t], the tongue tip touches the alveolar ridge and cuts off the airflow. In [s], the tongue tip approaches the alveolar ridge but doesn't quite touch it. There is still enough of an opening for airflow to continue, but the opening is narrow enough that it causes the escaping air to become turbulent (hence the hissing sound of the [s]). In a fricative consonant, the articulators involved in the constriction approach get close enough to each other to create a turbluent airstream. The fricatives of English are [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [s], [z], [ʃ], and [ʒ].

Affricates

An affricate is a single sound composed of a stop portion and a fricative portion. In English [tʃ], the airflow is first interuppted by a stop which is very similar to [t] (though made a bit further back). But instead of finishing the articulation quickly and moving directly into the next sound, the tongue pulls away from the stop slowly, so that there is a period of time immediately after the stop where the constriction is narrow enough to cause a turbulent airstream. In [tʃ], the period of turbulent airstream following the stop portion is the same as the fricative [ʃ]. English [dʒ] is an affricate like [tʃ], but voiced.

Laterals

Pay attention to  tongue when say the first consonant of [lif] leaf. tongue tip is touching  alveolar ridge (or perhaps upper teeth), but this doesn't make [l] a stop. Air is still flowing during an [l] because the side of tongue has dropped down and left an opening. (Some people drop down the right side of their tongue during an [l]; others drop down the left; a few drop down both sides.) Sounds which involve airflow around the side of the tongue are called laterals. Sounds which are not lateral are called central.

[l] is the only lateral in English. The other sounds of Englihs, like most of the sounds of the world's languages, are central.More specifically, [l] is a lateral approximant. The opening left at the side of the tongue is wide enough that the air flowing through does not become turbulent.

o   Place of articulator

/p/  voiceless bilabial plosive
 Active  articularotor in the bottom lip, and the passive articulator on the top lip
/b/  voiceless bilabial plosive
 Active  articularotor in the bottom lip, and the passive articulator on the top lip
/m/ voicless bilabial nasal
/w/ voiced labial-velar approximent
The lips are certainly approximant, though not enough to cause friction or obstruct the airflow.
/f/ voiceless labio-dental fricative
Active articulator in botton lips, and then move to the front teeth
/v/ voiceless labio-dental fricative
Active articulator in botton lips, and then move to the front teeth
[ɵ] voiceless dental fricative
The active articulator is the tip of the tongue, and the tongue conventionaly into the tip, the blade, the front, the back and the root.
[ð] voiced dental fricative
The active articulator is the tip of the tongue, and the tongue conventionaly into the tip, the blade, the front, the back and the root.
/t/ voiceless alveolar plosive
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/d/ voiced alveolar plosive
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/n/ voices alveolar nasal
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/s/ voiceless alveolar fricative
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/z/ voiced alveolar fricative
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/r/ voice alveolar central approximent
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/l/ voiced alveolar lateral approximent
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/ʃ/ voicless postalveolar  frictive
Produse with the blade of the tongue as the active articulator and the adjoining part of alveolar ridge and the hard palate  as the passive.
/ʒ/ voiced postalveolar fricative
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/k/ voiceless velar plosive
The active articulator is the back of tongue,
/ɳ/ voice velar nasal
the passive articulator is the velum or soft palate

Informal   
Slow it down make it stop or else my heart is going to pop cause it's too much it's a lot to be something I'm not. I'm a fool out of love 'cause I just can't get enough. I'm just a little bit caught in the middle life is a maze and love is a riddle, I don't know where to go I can't do it alone I try and I don't know why. I'm just a little girl lost in the moment i'm so scared but I don't show it i can't figure it out It's bring me down i know I've got to let it go. And just enjoy the show
Analysis
·         Spelling
[es/el/ou/dubleyu] [ai/ti:] [di/ou/dubleyu/en] [em/ei/kei/i:] [ai/ti:] [es/ti:/ou/pi] [ou/a:] [i:/el/es/i:] [em/wai] [eitc/i:/ei/a:/ti:] [ai/es] [ji/ou/ai/en/ji] [ti:/ou] [pi/ou/pi] [si/ei/yu/es.i:] [ai/ti:/es] [ti:/ou/ou] [em/yu/si/eitc] [ai/ti:/’/es] [ei] [el/ou/ti:] [ti:/ou] [bi/i:] [es/ou/em/i:/ti:/eitc/ai/en/ji] [ai/’/em] [en/ou/ti:]. [ai/’/em] [ei] [ef/ou/ou/el] [ou/yu/ti:] [ou/ef] [el/ou/vi/i:] [si/ei/yu/es/i:] [ai] [jei/yu/es/ti:] [si/ei/en/’/ti:] [ji/i:/ti:] [i:/en/ou/yu/ji/eitc]. [ai/’/em] [jei/yu/es/ti:] [ei] [el/ai/ti:/ti:el/i:] [bi/ai/ti:] [si/ei/yu/ji/eitc/ti] [ai/en] [ti:/eitc/i:] [em/ai/di/di/el/i:] [el/ai/ef/i:] [ai/es] [em/ei/zed/i:] [ei/en/di] [el/ou/vi/i:] [ai/es] [ei] [ar/ai/di/di/el/i:], [ai] [di/ou/en/’/ti:] [kei/en/ou/dubleyu] [dubleyu/eitc/i:/a:/i:] [ti:/ou] [ji/ou] [ai] [si/ei/en/’/ti:] [di/ou] [ai/ti:] [ei/el/ou/en/i:] [ai] [ti:/a:/wai] [ei/en/di] [ai] [di/ou/en/’/ti:] [kei/en/ou/dubleyu] [dubleyu/eitc/wai]/ [ai/’/em] [jei/yu/es/ti:] [ei] [el/ai/ti:/ti:/el/i:] [ji/ai/a:/el[ [el/ou/es/ti:] [ai/en] [ti:/eitc/i:] [em/ou/em/i:/en/ti:] [ai/’/em] [es/ou] [es/si/ei/a:/i:/di] [bi/yu/ti:] [di/ou/’/ti:] [es/eitc/ou/dubleyu] [ai] [si/ei/en/’/ti] [ef/ai/ji/yu/a:/i:] [ai/ti:] [ou/yu/ti:] [ai/ti:] [bi/a:/ai/en/ji] [em/ai] [di/ou/dubleyu/en] [ai] [kei/en/ou/dubleyu] [ai/’/vi/i:] [ji/ou/ti] [ti:/ou] [el/i:/ti:] [ai/ti:] [ji/ou]/ [ei/en/di] [jei/yu/es/ti:] [i:/en/jei/ou/wai] [ti:/eitc/i:] [es/eitc/ou/dubleyu]
·         Phonetic
/slǝʊ/ /ɪt/ /daʊn/ /meɪk/ / ɪt/ /stɒp/ /ɔ:/ /els/ /maɪ/ /hɑ:t/ /ɪz/ /gǝʊɪɳ/ /tu:/ /pɒp/ /k ɔ:z/ / ɪtz/ /tu:/ /mʌtʃ/ /ɪtz/ /ǝ:/ /lɒt/ /tu:/ bi;/ /’sʌmɵtiɳ/ /aɪm/ /ǝ:/ /fu:l/ /aʊt/ /ǝv/ /lʌv/ /k ɔ:z/ /aɪ/ /dʒʌst/ /kɑ:nt/ /get/ /i’nʌf/ . /aɪm/ /dʒʌst/ /ǝ;/ /’lɪtl/ /bɪt/ /kɔ:t/ /ɪn / /ðǝ;/ /’mɪdl/ /laɪf/ /ɪz/ /ǝ:/ meɪz/ /ǝn/ /lʌv/ /ɪz/ /ǝ;/ /’rɪdl/, /aɪ/ /dəʊnt/ /nəʊ/ /weə/ tə:/ /gəʊ/ /aɪ/ /kɑ:nt/ /du:/ /ɪt/ /ǝ’lǝʊn/ /aɪ/ /traɪ/ /ǝn/ /aɪ/ /dəʊnt/ /nəʊ/ /waɪ/. /aɪm/ /dʒʌst/ /ǝ;/ /’lɪtl/ /gɜ:l/ lɒst/ /ɪn/ /ðə:/ /’məʊmənt/ /aɪm/ /səʊ/ /skɑ:(r)/ /bǝt;/ /aɪ/ /dǝʊnt/ /ʃǝʊ/ /ɪt/ /aɪ/ /kɑ:nt/ /’figǝ/ /ɪt/ /aʊt/ /ɪtz/ /brɪɳ/ /mi:/ /daʊn/ /aɪ/ /nəʊ/ /aɪv/ /gɒt/ /tu:/ let/ /ɪt/ /gəʊ/ . /ən/ /dʒʌst/ ɪn’dʒɔɪ/ /ðə:/ /ʃəʊ/

·         Vowels

Ø  Front vowels
The vowels are front, produse with the the front of the tongue raised towards the hard palate, in the paragraph included front vowels are:

o   I’m, little, bit, in, midle, life, is maze, ridle, it                        = ɪ
o   me                                                                                             = i:
o   maze                                                                                         = eɪ
o   laif, i                                                                                          = a

Ø  Back vowels

Back vowels have the back of tongue raised, towards the soft palate or velum, , in the paragraph included back vowels are:

o   Stop, lost, pop, got, lot                                                            = ɒ
o   go, show, down,alone                                                           = ʊ
o   heart, can’t,                                                                              = ɑ:
o   cause,caught, or                                                                     = ɔ:
o   To, full                                                                                       = u:
Ø  Central vowels

Vowels between front and back, and involve raising of th body of the tongue towards the area where the hard and soft palate join. , in the paragraph included central vowels are:

o   A, of, and, alone, but                                                                       = ə
o   Just, love,                                                                                          =  ʌ

Ø  High vowels

Have the tongue raise most towards the roof of the mouth. If the raising was significanly greater, then fiction would be produse, making a fricative consonant, not a vowels, the high vowels are:
o   I’m, little, bit, in, midle, life, is maze, ridle, it                        = ɪ
o   me                                                                                             = i:
o   go, show, down,alone                                                           = ʊ
o   To, full                                                                                       = u:

Ø  Low vowels
Where the tongue isn;t raised at all, but rather lowwered from its raising position. Low vowels are :

o   heart, can’t,                                                                              = ɑ:


Ø  Mid vowels
These is further class intermediate between high and low vowels. These can if necassary be further subclassified as high mid or low mid depending on whether they are nearer yhe high end of the scale, or nearer the low end. Mid vowels are:

o   maze                                                                                         = eɪ
o   Stop, lost, pop, got, lot                                                            = ɒ
o   cause,caught, or                                                                     = ɔ:
o   A, of, and, alone, but                                                              = ə
o   Just, love                                                                                  =  ʌ

·         Monopthongs and dipthongs

Most of the vowels so far have been monopthongs, in which the quality of the vowels stays fairly consistent from the begining of its production to the end. There also several diphtongs that change in quality during their production, and are typically transcribe with one starting point, and a quite different end point, as might be expected from the describtion, diphthongs are typically long vowels.
And are the diphthongs:

o   go, show, down,alone                                                           = aʊ


·         Consonant

o   Place of articulator

/p/  voiceless bilabial plosive
 Active  articularotor in the bottom lip, and the passive articulator on the top lip
/b/  voiceless bilabial plosive
 Active  articularotor in the bottom lip, and the passive articulator on the top lip
/m/ voicless bilabial nasal
/w/ voiced labial-velar approximent
The lips are certainly approximant, though not enough to cause friction or obstruct the airflow.
/f/ voiceless labio-dental fricative
Active articulator in botton lips, and then move to the front teeth
/v/ voiceless labio-dental fricative
Active articulator in botton lips, and then move to the front teeth
[ɵ] voiceless dental fricative
The active articulator is the tip of the tongue, and the tongue conventionaly into the tip, the blade, the front, the back and the root.
[ð] voiced dental fricative
The active articulator is the tip of the tongue, and the tongue conventionaly into the tip, the blade, the front, the back and the root.
/t/ voiceless alveolar plosive
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/d/ voiced alveolar plosive
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/n/ voices alveolar nasal
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/s/ voiceless alveolar fricative
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/z/ voiced alveolar fricative
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/r/ voice alveolar central approximent
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/l/ voiced alveolar lateral approximent
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/ʃ/ voicless postalveolar  frictive
Produse with the blade of the tongue as the active articulator and the adjoining part of alveolar ridge and the hard palate  as the passive.
/ʒ/ voiced postalveolar fricative
Produse by the tip or blade of the tongue move up towards the alveolar ridge
/k/ voiceless velar plosive
The active articulator is the back of tongue,
/ɳ/ voice velar nasal
the passive articulator is the velum or soft palate

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