Wednesday, August 24, 2016

English Morphology

FORMAL SENTENCES

One reason people lie, is to achieve personal power. Achieving personal power is helpful for someone, who pretends to be more confident than he really is.
/w/Ʌ/n/ /’r/i:/z/n/ /’p/i:/p/l/ /l/aɪ/ /ɪ/z/ /t/ə:/ /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/ /’p/ɜ:/s/ə/n/l/ /’paʊə(r)/ /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/i/ɧ/ /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/i/ɧ/ /h/e/l/p/f/ə/l/ /f/ə/(r)/ /’sɅmwɅn/ /hu:/ /prɪ’tend(s)/ /tə;/  /bi;/ /mɔ:(r)/  /’kɒnfɪdənt/  /en;/  / hi:/  /’ri:əli/  /iz/


1.    ONE  /w/Ʌ/n/
a.    Consonant /w/
                       i.    Place of Articulatory /w/
Bilabial : Bilabial consonants are produced by creating a closure with both lips.
                      ii.    Manner of articulatory /w/
p-bSemi-vowel : a voiced gliding sound in which the speech organs start by producing a waekly articulated vowel of comparatively small inherent sonority and immadiately change to another sound of equal or greater prominence.

b.    Vowel /Ʌ/
                       i.    Place of Articulatory /Ʌ/
Back vowels: Produced with the tongue in the back of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /Ʌ/
Open-mid back unrounded vowel [ʌ], a short sound as in one[wʌn]. The tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth, almost touching the soft palate.

c.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    Place of articulation /n/
Alveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /n/
Nasal : The mouth-passage is completeli blocked by raising the tip of the tounge to touch the teet-ridge as shown in picture, the soft palate is lowered so that, when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs, it passes out through the nose, the vocal cord are made to vibrate so that “voice” is produced. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as a voiced alveolar nasal consonant.
d.    Syllables
    Ϭ

   
          R


O            N       C

/w/        /Ʌ/      /n/
2.    REASON   /’r/i:/z/n/
a.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    Place of articulation /r/
Approximants : In an approximant, the articulators involved in the constriction are further apart still than they are for a fricative. The articulators are still closer to each other than when the vocal tract is in its neutral position, but they are not even close enough to cause the air passing between them to become turbulent.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /r/
Fricative : it is articulated by the tip of the tongue against the back part of the teeth-ridge, the main body of the tongue being kept low and the “front” being held concave to the palate, and the whole tongue being laterally contracted.

b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    Place of articulation /i:/
Front vowels : Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /i:/
Description of the manner of forming the vowel :
a)    Height of tongue: nearly “close”
b)    Part of tongue which is highest: centre of “front”
c)    Position of lips : spread or neutral
d)    Opening between the jaw: narrow medium.

c.    Consonant /z/
                       i.    Place of articulation /z/
Alveolar
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /z/
Fricative : it is articulated by the blade (or tip and blade) of the tongue against the teeth-ridge, the front of the tongue being at the same time slightly raises in the direction of the hard palate. The teeth are brought close together, and the passage between the blade of the tongue and the teeth-ridge is extremely narrow. The soft palate is in its raised pisotion, and the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that “voice” is produced.
d.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    see at “one”
e.    Syllable
                    Ϭ                   Ϭ

   
                          R             R


      O             N       C     N

  /’r/           /i:/       /z/    /n/

3.    PEOPLE   /’p/i:/p/l/
a.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    Place of articulation /p/
Labial
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /p/
Plosive : The air passage is completely blocked by closing thep-b lips and raising the soft palate, the air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, and when the lips are opened the air suddenly escapes from the mouth, and in doing so makes an explosive sound, the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiceless bilabial plosive consonant.

b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”

c.    Consonant /l/
                       i.    Place of articulation /l/
Alveolar : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth. English alveolar consonants are formed by raising the tip of the tongue to the alveolar ridge, which lies right behind the teeth. There are both fricatives and stops.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /l/
Lateral : articulated by the tip of the tongue touching the teeth-ridge in such a way that though there is complete closure in the middle of the mouth, yet a passage for the air in is raised position, the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that “voice” is produced. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sounds as voiced alveolar lateral consonant.
d.    Syllable
            Ϭ                    Ϭ

   
          R              R


O           N       C        N

/’p/       /i:/       /p/     /l/

4.    LIE  /l/aɪ/
a.    Consonant /l/
                       i.    See at “people”

b.    Dipthong /aɪ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /aɪ/
Front
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /aɪ/
a.    Height of tongue : low
b.    Part of tongue raised : the front
c.    Position of lips : sread to neutral
d.    Opening between the jaw : rather wide
The tongue-tip is touching or nearly touching the lower front teeth, and as in the case of all ordinary vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.
c.    Syllable
    Ϭ


          R


 O                N       

               /l/             /aɪ/

5.    IS    /ɪ/z/
a.    Vowel /ɪ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɪ/
Front vowels: Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɪ/
The manner of forming this English short /ɪ/
a.    Height of tongue : nearly “half close”
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the hinder part of the “front”
c.    Position of lips : spread or neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : narrow to medium
The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth, but smaal variations in its position do not materially affect the tamber. As with all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the cords are in vibration.

b.    Consonan /z/
                       i.    Place of articulation
Alveolar : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth. English alveolar consonants are formed by raising the tip of the tongue to the alveolar ridge, which lies vt-t-dright behind the teeth. There are both fricatives and stops.

                      ii.    Manner of articulation /z/
Fricative : the teeth are close together, the sound cannot be pronounced with the mouth wide open. The space between the blade of the tongue and the teeth-ridge is extremely narrow. The soft palate is in its raises position, and the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of /z/ may be expresses shortly by defining the sound as a breathed blade-alveolar fricative consonant.

6.    TO  /t/ə:/
a.    Consonant /t/
                       i.    Place of articulation /t/
Alveolar : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /t/
The air passage is completely blocked by raising the soft palate and raising vt-t-dthe tip of the tongue to touch has teeth-ridge, the air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, and when the tongue is removed from the teeth-ridge, the air suddenly escapes through the mouth, and in doing so makes an explosive sound, vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiceless alveolar plosive consonant.
b.    Vowel /ə;/
                       i.    Place of artiulation /ə;/
Central vowels: Produced with the tongue in the center of the mouth.
Manner of articulation /ə;/
a.    Height of tongue : about half-way between “open” and “close”
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the central part, culminating at the junction between “front” and “back”
c.    Position of lips : spread
d.    Opening between the jaws : narrow.
The tip of the tongue generally touches the base of the lower teeth, but as long as it is near the lower teeth, its precise position does not appreciably affect the quality of the sound. As in the case of all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position, and the vocal cords are in vibration.


c.    Syllable
    Ϭ


                R


O               N       

/t/             /ə:/

7.    ACHIEVE /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/
a.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ə/
Central vowels: Produced with the tongue in the center of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ə/
The approximate tongue-position of /ə/, its lip-position is similar.

b.    Consonant /tʃ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /tʃ/
Palato-alveolar
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /tʃ/
Africative : the air-passage is completely blocked by raising the soft palate and v-postalveolar-t-draising the tip and blade of the tongue into the position  shown in picture, that is to say a closed position in which the main part of the tingue is shaped nearly as for /ʃ/. While the “stop” is being held, air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, when the tongue is removed from the teeth-ridge, the air escapes through the mouth : the removal of the tongue is performed in such a way that the effect of the homorganic fricative /ʃ/ is audible before any following sound is reached the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The fromation of /tʃ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiceless palato-alveolar affricative consonant.

c.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”

d.    Consonant /v/
                       i.    Place of articulation /v/
Labiodental = lower lip and upper teeth.
Labiodental consonants are produced by
raising the lower lip to the upper teeth. English has only fricative labiodentals, and
no stops.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /v/
The vocal cords are made vibrate so that “voice” is produced during the articulation of the sound. The formation of /v/ may therefore be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced labio-dental fricative consonant.
e.    Syllable
                Ϭ                    Ϭ

   
          R              R


   O            N       C        N

      /ə/         /’tʃ/     /i:/    /v/
8.    PERSONAL   /’p/ɜ:/s/ə/n/l/
a.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    See at “people”

b.    Vowel /ɜ:/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɜ:/
Central vowels: Produced with the tongue in the center of the mouth.

                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɜ:/
The central part of the tongue is raised in order to make it. The tongue is raised to about mid-way between the “half-close” and “half-open” positions, or perhaps a shade higher than this. The lips are spread, the opening between the jaws is narrow, it is impossible to make the sound properly with a wide open mouth.

c.    Consonant /s/
                       i.    Place of articulation /s/
vt-t-dAlveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /s/
This sound is articulated by the blade (or tp and blade) of the tongue against the teeth-ridge, the “front” of the tongue being at the same time some what raised in the direction of the hard palate.
d.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
e.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    See at “people”
f.     Consonat /l/
                       i.    See at “people”
g.    Syllable
            Ϭ                        Ϭ                    Ϭ

   
          R                        R             R


O       N       O         N       C      N

        /’p/      /ɜ:/      /s/       /ə/      /n/     /l/

9.    POWER  /’paʊə(r)/
a.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    See at “people”
b.    Dipthong /aʊ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /aʊ/
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /aʊ/
The formation of the vowel with which the dipthong begins :
a.    Height of tongue : low
b.    Part of the tongue raised : the hinder part of the front
c.    Position of lips : neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : rather wide.
The tongue-tip is touching or nearly touching the lower front teeth, and as in the case of all ordinary vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.

c.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
d.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
e.    Syllable
    Ϭ

   
                  R


O           N       C

/’p/       /aʊ/   /ə(r)/

10. ACHIEVING   /ə/’tʃ/i:/v/i/ɧ/
a.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
b.    Consonant /tʃ/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
c.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”
d.    Consonant /v/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
e.    Vowel /i/
                       i.    Place of articulation /i/
Front vowels: Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /i/
The manner of forming this English /i/ :
a.    Height of tongue : nearly “half-close”
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the hinder part of the front
c.    Position of lips :spread or neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : narrow to medium.
The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth, but small variation in its position do not materially affect the tamber. As with all normal vowel, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords in vibration.

f.     Consonant /ɧ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɧ/
Velar : the back of the tongue raised to the soft palate ("velum"), the area right behind the palate.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɧ/
vt-k-gThe mouth-passage is completely blocked by raising the back of the tongue to touch the fore part of the soft palate shown in picture, the soft palate is in its lowered position, so that when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs it issues through the nose. The vocal cords are made to vibrate, so that “voice” is produced. The formation of this /ɧ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced velar nasal consonant.
g.    Syllable
Ϭ                      Ϭ                     Ϭ

   
   R                      R                     R


     N        C            N       O         N

    /ə/       /’tʃ/       /i:/     /v/     /i/ɧ/
11. HELPFUL  /h/e/l/p/f/ə/l/
a.    Consonant /h/
                       i.    Place of articulation /h/
Glottal
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /h/
The glottis is the opening between the vocal folds. In an /h/, this opening is narrow enough to create some turbulence in the airstream flowing past the vocal folds. For this reason, /h/ is often classified as a glottal fricative.
b.    Vocal /e/
                       i.    Place of articulation /e/
Front vowels: Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /e/
The manner of forming the sound :
a.    Height of tongue : intermediate between half-close and half-open.
b.    Part of the tongue raised : the front
c.    Position of lips : spread or neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : medium.
The tongue touches the lower teeth, but small variations in its position do not materially affect the tamber. As with all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.

c.    Consonant /l/
                       i.    See at “people”
d.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    See at “people”
e.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
f.     Consonant /f/
                       i.    Place of articulation /f/
vt-f-vLabiodental : lower lip and upper teeth
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /f/
The sound /f/ is formed by pressing the lower lip againts the upper teeth and allowing the air to force its way between them and through the interstices of the teeth, the soft palate is in its raised position and the glotis is left open. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as a breathed labio-dental fricative consonant.
g.    Syllable
    Ϭ                                  Ϭ

   
                      R                                   R


    O           N       C        O             N       C

/h/         /e/     /l/p/     /f/          /ə/      /l/


12. FOR /fə(r)/
a.    Consonant /f/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
b.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
c.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
d.    Syllable
   б


                           R


              O          N        

            /f/       /ə(r)/
13. SOMEONE  /sɅmwɅn/
a.    Consonant /s/
                       i.    See at “personal”
b.    Vowel /Ʌ/
                       i.    See at “one”
c.    Consonant /m/
                       i.    Place of articulation /m/
Bilabial : two lips. Bilabial consonants are produced by creating a closure with both lips.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /m/
The mouth-passage is completely blocked by closing the lips, the soft palate p-bis lowered so that, when air is emited by pressure from the lungs, it passes out through the nose, the tongue is held in a nuetral position, the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is produced. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced bi-labial nasal consonant.
d.    Consonant /w/
                       i.    See at “one”
e.    Vowel /Ʌ/
                       i.    See at “one”
f.     Consonant /n/
                       i.    See at “reason”
g.    Syllable
       б                                   б


                                      R                                  R


                  O            N       C         O           N       C

     /s/          /Ʌ/     /m/     /w/         /Ʌ/     /n/

14. WHO /hu:/
a.    Consonant /h/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
b.    Vowel /u:/
                       i.    Place of articulation /u:/
High vowels: Produced with the tongue high in the mouth.
Manner of articulation /u:/
a.    Height of tongue : nearly close
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the back
c.    Position of lips : close lip-rounding
d.    Opening between jaws : narrow to medium.
The tip of the tongue is generally, though not necessarily, somewhat reracted from the lower teeth. As in the case of all normal vowels, soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords as in vibration.
c.    Syllable
       б


                R


   O         N

                /h/        /u:/
15. PRETENDS /prɪ’tend(s)/
a.    Consonant /p/
                       i.    See at “people”
b.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
c.    Consonant /t/
                       i.    See at “people”
d.    Vowel /e/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
e.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    See at “one”
f.     Consonant /d/
                       i.    Place of articulation /d/
Alveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                      ii.    vt-t-dManner of articulation /d/
Plosive : d-phoneme is formed like the principal English /t/ except that the force of exhalation is waker and the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is hard. The formation of the principal English /d/ may therefore be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced alveolar plosive consonant.
g.    Syllable
     б                                   б


                                    R                                 R


                O           N       C          O           N       C

      /p/          /r/       /ɪ’/      /t/          /e/    /nd(s)/

16. TO  /tə;/ 
a.    Consonant /t/
                       i.    See at
b.    Vowel /ə:/
                       i.    See at “to”

c.    Syllable
        б


                 R


    O         N

    /t/       /ə;/ 
17. BE  /bi;/
a.    Consonant /b/
                       i.    Place of articulation /b/
Bilabial : two lips. Bilabial consonants are produced by creating a closure with both lips.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /b/
Plosive : The air passage is completely blocked by closing the lips and raising the soft palate, the air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, and when the lips are opened the air suddenly escapes from the mouth, and in doing so makes an explosive sound, the vocal cords made to vibrate. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voice bilabial plosive consonant.
b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”

18. MORE  /mɔ:(r)/  
a.    Consonant /m/
                       i.    Place of articulation /m/
Bilabial = two lips. Bilabial consonants are produced by creating a closure with both lips. 
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /m/
The mouth-passage is completely blocked by closing the tips, p-bthe soft palate is lowered so that, when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs, it passes out through the nose, the tongue is held in a neutral position, the vocal cords are made tovibrate so that voice is produced. The formation of the sound may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced bi-labial nasal  consonant.

b.    Vowel /ɔ:/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɔ:/
Back vowels: Produced with the tongue in the back of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɔ:/
The manner of forming the English long /ɔ:/
a.    Height of tongue : between half-open and open.
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the back.
c.    Position of lips : between  open and close lip-rounding.
d.    Opening between the jaws : medium to fairly wide.
The tip of the tongue is generally. Though not necessary, slightly retracted from the lower teeth. As with all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.
c.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
d.    Syllable
      б


                                     R


                O           N      C

/m/         /ɔ:/    /(r)/  

19. CONFIDENT  /’kɒnfɪdənt/  
a.    Consonant /k/
                       i.    Place of articulation /k/
Velar : the back of the tongue raised to the soft palate ("velum"), the area right behind the palate.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /k/
vt-k-gThe air passage is completely blocked by raising the back of the tongue to touch the fore part of the soft palate, the soft palate being at the same time raised so as to shut off the nose passage. The air is compressed by pressure from the lungs and when the contact of the tongue with tha palate is released by lowering the tongue, the air suddenly escapes through the mouth and in doing so makes an explosive sound, the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of the principal English /k/ may be expressed shortly by defining it is a voiceless velar plosive consonant.

b.    Vowel /ɒ/
                       i.    Place of articulation /ɒ/
Back vowels : Produced with the tongue in the back of the mouth.
                      ii.    Manner of articulation /ɒ/
Is sound in which the back of the tongue is lowered as far as passible and retracted as far as possible consistently with the sound being a vowel and in which the lips are not rounded.
c.    Syllable
    б                                   б                                   б


                                 R                                    R                            R


               O           N       C       O           N       C        O         N

     /’k/         /ɒ/      /n/      /f/          /ɪ/      /d/       /ə/       /nt/  

20. THAN  / ðen;/  
a.    Consonant /ð/
b.    Vowel /e/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
c.    Consonant /n/
                       i.    See at “one”
d.    Syllable                          б
      

                                                   R


                              O           N       C

                                             /ð/         /e/     /n;/  
21. HE /hi:/    
a.    Consonant /h/
                       i.    See at “helpful”
b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”
c.    Syllable
       б


                               R


                  O         N

     /h/        /i:/    
22.  REALLY /’ri:əli/ 
a.    Consonant /r/
                       i.    See at “reason”
b.    Vowel /i:/
                       i.    See at “reason”
c.    Vowel /ə/
                       i.    See at “achieve”
d.    Consonal /l/
                       i.    See at “people”
e.    Vowel /i/
                       i.    See at “achieving”
f.     Syllable
    б                      б


                            R                       R


               O         N          O         N

             /’r/       /i:ə/       /l/         /i/ 


23.  IS /iz/
a.    Vowel /i/
                       i.    See at “achieving”
b.    Consonant /z/
                       i.    See at “is”
c.    Syllable













INFORMAL SENTENCES

A.   Gonna = going to
Nothing gonna change your love for me.
/ˈnʌθ.ɪŋ/ /ˈgə.nə/ /tʃeɪndʒ/ /jɔː r / /lʌv/ /fɔː r / /miː/


1.    Nothing /ˈnʌθ.ɪŋ/
a.    Consonant /n/
                     i.    Place of articulation /n/
vt-t-dAlveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth. English alveolar consonants are formed by raising the tip of the tongue to the alveolar ridge, which lies right behind the teeth. There are both fricatives and stops.

                    ii.    Manner of articulation /n/
Nasal : The mouth-passage is completeli blocked by raising the tip of the tounge to touch the teet-ridge as shown in picture, the soft palate is lowered so that, when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs, it passes out through the nose, the vocal cord are made to vibrate so that “voice” is produced. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as a voiced alveolar nasal consonant.

b.    Vowel /Ʌ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /Ʌ/
Back vowels: Produced with the tongue in the back of the mouth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /Ʌ/
Open-mid back unrounded vowel [ʌ], a short sound as in one[wʌn]. The tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth, almost touching the soft palate.

c.    Consonant /θ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /θ/
Interdental : tongue between the teeth

                    ii.    Manner of articulation /θ/
The sound /θ/ is articulated by the tip of the tongue being fairly flatvt-theta-edh, the air passage between the tip of the tongue and the upper teeth is narrow, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The formation of /θ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as breathed dental fricative consonant.
d.    Vowel /ɪ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /ɪ/
Front vowels: Produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /ɪ/
The manner of forming this English short /ɪ/
a.    Height of tongue : nearly “half close”
b.    Part of tongue which is highest : the hinder part of the “front”
c.    Position of lips : spread or neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : narrow to medium
The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth, but smaal variations in its position do not materially affect the tamber. As with all normal vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the cords are in vibration.
e.    Consonant /ɧ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /ɧ/
Velar : the back of the tongue raised to the soft palate ("velum"), the area right behind the palate.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /ɧ/
vt-k-gThe mouth-passage is completely blocked by raising the back of the tongue to touch the fore part of the soft palate shown in picture, the soft palate is in its lowered position, so that when air is emitted by pressure from the lungs it issues through the nose. The vocal cords are made to vibrate, so that “voice” is produced. The formation of this /ɧ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced velar nasal consonant.
f.     Syllable
      б                             б


                                     R                       R


                 O           N       C     O         N

              /ˈn/          /ʌ/      /θ./    /ɪ/      /ŋ/

2.    Gonna /ˈgə.nə/
a.    Consonant /g/
                     i.    Place of articulation /g/
Velar : the back of the tongue raised to the soft palate ("velum"), the area right behind the palate.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /g/
vt-k-gVocal cords are pulled close together. The air passing through the glottis causes the vocal cords to vibrate. This is called the voicing state and sounds produced with this configuration of the vocal cords are called /g/.
b.    Vowel /ə/
                     i.    Place of articulation /ə/
Central vowels: Produced with the tongue in the center of the mouth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /ə/
The approximate tongue-position of /ə/, its lip-position is similar
c.    Syllable
    б                     б


    R                       R


               O         N         O         N

            /ˈg/        /ə./      /n/        /ə/
3.    Change /tʃeɪndʒ/
a.    Consonant /tʃ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /tʃ/
Palato alveolar
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /tʃ/
Africative : the air-passage is completely blocked by raising the soft palate and raising the tip and blade of the tongue into the position  shown in picture, that is to say a closed position in which the main part of the tingue is shaped nearly as for /ʃ/. While the “stop” is being held, air is compressed by pressure from the lungs, when the tongue is removed from the teeth-ridge, the air escapes through the mouth : the removal of the tongue is performed in such a way that the effect of the homorganic fricative /ʃ/ is audible before any following sound is reached the vocal cords are not made to vibrate. The fromation of /tʃ/ may be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiceless palato-alveolar affricative consonant.

b.    Dipthong /eɪ/
                     i.    Place of articulation /eɪ/
Middle : Produced with the tongue in the middle of the mouth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /eɪ/
The dipthong /eɪ/ strarts at about English /e/ and moves in the direction of /i/.
c.    Consonant /dʒ/
                     i.    v-postalveolar-t-dPlace of articulation /dʒ/
Palato alveolar
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /dʒ/
The English /dʒ/ phoneme is formed like /tʃ/ except that the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is produced during the articulation of the sound may therefore be expressed shortly by defining is as voiced palato-alveolar affricate consonant.
d.    Syllable
      б


                     R


 O           N       C

/tʃ/         /eɪ/   /ndʒ/
4.    Your /jɔː r /
a.    Consonant /j/
                     i.    Place of articulation /j/
Palatal
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /j/
The front of the tongue is raised rather high in the direction of the hard palate, the lips are spread, the soft palate is in its raised position, the vocal cords are made to vibrate, so that voice is hard. The formation of /j/ may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as an unrounded palatal semi-vowel.

b.    Syllable
     б


                                    R


                O           N       C

               /j/          /ɔː/     /r/
5.    Love /lʌv/
a.    Consonant /v/
                     i.    Place of articulation /v/
Labiodental : lower lip and upper teeth.
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /v/
vt-f-vThe sound /v/ is formed by pressing the lower lip against the upper teeth and allowing the air to force its way between them and through the interstices of the teeth, the soft palate is in its raised position and the glottis is left open. The vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is produced during thr articulation of the sound. The formation of /v/ may therefore be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced labio-dental fricative consonant.
b.    Syllable
     б

  
                                    R


                O           N       C

               /l/          /ʌ/      /v/



6.    For /fɔː r/
a.    vt-f-vConsonant /f/
                     i.    Place of articulation /f/
Labiodental : lower lip and upper teeth
                    ii.    Manner of articulation /f/
The sound /f/ is formed by pressing the lower lip against the upper teeth and allowing the air to force its way between them and through the interstices of the teeth, the soft palate is in its raised position and the glottis is left open. This formation may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as a breathed labio-dental fricative consonant.
b.    Syllable
     б


                                    R


                O           N       C

               /f/          /ɔː/     /r/

B.   Gimme = Give me
Don’t gimme that pen.
/dəʊnt/ / /ˈgɪm.i /  /ðæt/  /pen/

1.    Don’t  /dəʊnt/
a.         Consonant /d/
                          i.    Place of articulation /d/
Alveolar  : tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, behind the top teeth.
                         ii.    Manner of articulation /d/
Plosive : d-phoneme is formed like the principal English /t/ except that the vt-t-dforce of exhalation is waker and the vocal cords are made to vibrate so that voice is hard. The formation of the principal English /d/ may therefore be expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced alveolar plosive consonant
b.         Dipthong /əʊ/
                          i.    Place of articulation /əʊ/
                         ii.    Manner of articulation /əʊ/
The formation of the vowel with which the dipthong begins :
a.    Height of tongue : low
b.    Part of the tongue raised : the hinder part of the front
c.    Position of lips : neutral
d.    Opening between the jaws : rather wide.
The tongue-tip is touching or nearly touching the lower front teeth, and as in the case of all ordinary vowels, the soft palate is in its raised position and the vocal cords are in vibration.
c.         Consonant /n/
                          i.    See at “nothing”
d.         Consonant /t/
                          i.    See at “to”
e.         Syllable
     б


                                                R


                            O           N       C

   /d/         /əʊ/   /nt/
2.    Gimmi /ˈgɪm.i/  
a.         Consonant /g/
                          i.    See at “gonna”
b.         Vowel /ɪ/
                          i.    See at “nothing”
c.         Consonant /m/
                          i.    See at “someone”
d.         Vowel /i/
                          i.    See at “nothing”


e.         Syllable
              б                     б


    R                       R


             O         N         O         N

            /ˈg/        /ɪ/       /m./       /i/  

3.    That /ðæt/  
a.         Consonant /ð/
                          i.    Place of articulation /ð/
Dental : tongue between the teeth.
                         ii.    Manner of articulation /ð/
The principal member English phoneme represented by /ð/ is the voiced consonant coressponding the the breathed ɸ. Its formation may expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced dental fricative consonant.
b.         Vowel /æ/
                          i.    Place of articulation /æ/
                         ii.    Manner of articulation /æ/
c.         Consonant /t/
                          i.    See at “to”
d.         Syllable
  б


                             R


          O           N      C

/ð/          /æ/     /t/  


4.    Pen /pen/
a.         Consonant /p/
                          i.    See at “people”
b.         Vocal /e/
                          i.    See at “helpful”
c.         Consonant /n/
                          i.    See at “gonna”
d.         Syllable
б


      R


                      O           N      C

                     /p/          /e/     /n/


                               


SPEECH

Assalamualaikum wr wb.

I thank God for giving the health and time to share a knowledge on this historic day, the day of national education.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Indonesia is a big country, inhabited by hundreds of millions people includes islands spread widely. We have been independent since 1945, but I think Indonesia is not yet independent in terms of education. Although we have changed curricula almost every year, but it proved that the Indonesian education has not been able to compete with the developed countries. We tend to fall behind and have not been able to print a great human resources class as developed countries.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

I tried to draw a line to the back, and I get the irony which is really disappointing. In this very rich country, there are so many students drop out of school, do not have a uniform, and swim to go to school because of the broken bridge. It is an irony in the midst of our State assets.

Statistics of school buildings damaged and have not been improved are also too much. It is happening in the provinces that are far away from the center of government and gives continuing negative effect on the education system in the province itself.

Of course, a child who does not get an education will have difficulties in achieving a better stAndard of living in his future. You've seen that a lot of ignorance and poverty arise because so many crimes arising from poverty.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Education is a major key to get a better state order. Through proper and best education, we are able to print high-quality human resources, eradicate ignorance, and destroy poverty.

Therefore, let us together to be students and teachers that are diligent, sincere, and keep trying without the unyielding. We are Indonesia, a rich country that should have the best education. Do not give up on the fate of our nation today, and continues to struggle in gaining an independence education.

I would like to thank you all for giving me the opportunity to convey these short useful messages.

Thank you for all the attention,

Wassalamualaikum wr wb




SPEECH
[Assalamualaikum] [wr] [wb].
ˈaɪ ˈθæŋk ˈgɑd fər ˈgɪvɪŋ ðə ˈhelθ ənd ˈtaɪm tə ˈʃer ə ˈnɑlɪdʒ ˈɔn ˈðɪs hɪˈstɔrɪk ˈdeɪ, ðə ˈdeɪ əv ˈnæʃnəl ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən.
ˈleɪdiːz ənd [Gentlemen],
ˌɪndəˈniːʒə ɪz ə ˈbɪg ˈkəntriː, ɪnˈhæbətɪd ˈbaɪ ˈhəndrədz əv ˈmɪ(l)jənz ˈpiːpəl ɪnˈkluːdz ˈaɪləndz ˈspred [widely]. ˈwiː ˈhæv ˈbɪn ˌɪndəˈpendənt ˈsɪns 1945, ˈbət ˈaɪ ˈθɪŋk ˌɪndəˈniːʒə ɪz ˈnɑt ˈjet ˌɪndəˈpendənt ˈɪn ˈtərmz əv ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən. ɔlˈðoʊ ˈwiː ˈhæv ˈtʃeɪndʒd [curricula] ˈɔlˌmoʊst ˈevriː ˈjɪr, ˈbət ˈɪt ˈpruːvd ˈðæt ðə ˌɪndəˈniːʒən ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən ˈhæz ˈnɑt ˈbɪn ˈeɪbəl tə kəmˈpiːt ˈwɪð ðə dɪˈveləpt ˈkəntriːz. ˈwiː ˈtend tə ˈfɔl bɪˈhaɪnd ənd ˈhæv ˈnɑt ˈbɪn ˈeɪbəl tə ˈprɪnt ə ˈgreɪt ˈhjuːmən ˈriːˌsɔrsɪz ˈklæs əz dɪˈveləpt ˈkəntriːz.
ˈleɪdiːz ənd [Gentlemen],
ˈaɪ ˈtraɪd tə ˈdrɔ ə ˈlaɪn tə ðə ˈbæk, ənd ˈaɪ ˈget ðiː ˈaɪrəniː ˈwɪtʃ ɪz ˈriːliː ˌdɪsəˈpɔɪntɪŋ. ˈɪn ˈðɪs ˈveriː ˈrɪtʃ ˈkəntriː, ˈðer ɑr ˈsoʊ ˈmeniː ˈstuːdənts ˈdrɑp ˈæʊt əv ˈskuːl, ˈduː ˈnɑt ˈhæv ə ˈjuːnəˌfɔrm, ənd ˈswɪm tə ˈgoʊ tə ˈskuːl bɪˈkɔz əv ðə ˈbroʊkən ˈbrɪdʒ. ˈɪt ɪz ən ˈaɪrəniː ˈɪn ðə ˈmɪdst əv ɑr ˈsteɪt ˈæˌsets.
stəˈtɪstɪks əv ˈskuːl ˈbɪldɪŋz ˈdæmɪdʒd ənd ˈhæv ˈnɑt ˈbɪn ɪmˈpruːvd ɑr ˈɔlsoʊ ˈtuː ˈmətʃ. ˈɪt ɪz ˈhæpənɪŋ ˈɪn ðə ˈprɑvənsɪz ˈðæt ɑr ˈfɑr əˈweɪ ˈfrəm ðə ˈsentər əv ˈgəvər(n)mənt ənd ˈgɪvz [continuing] ˈnegətɪv ɪˈfekt ˈɔn ðiː ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən ˈsɪstəm ˈɪn ðə ˈprɑvəns ɪtˈself.
əv ˈkɔrs, ə ˈtʃaɪld ˈhuː ˈdoʊz ˈnɑt ˈget ən ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən wəl ˈhæv [difficulties] ˈɪn əˈtʃiːvɪŋ ə ˈbetər ˈstændərd əv ˈlɪvɪŋ ˈɪn (h)ɪz ˈfjuːtʃər. [You've] ˈsiːn ˈðæt ə ˈlɑt əv ˈɪgnrəns ənd ˈpɑvərtiː əˈraɪz bɪˈkɔz ˈsoʊ ˈmeniː ˈkraɪmz əˈraɪzɪŋ ˈfrəm ˈpɑvərtiː.
ˈleɪdiːz ənd [Gentlemen],
ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən ɪz ə ˈmeɪdʒər ˈkiː tə ˈget ə ˈbetər ˈsteɪt ˈɔrdər. ˈθruː ˈprɑpər ənd ˈbest ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən, ˈwiː ɑr ˈeɪbəl tə ˈprɪnt [high-quality] ˈhjuːmən ˈriːˌsɔrsɪz, ɪˈrædəˌkeɪt ˈɪgnrəns, ənd dɪˈstrɔɪ ˈpɑvərtiː.
ˈðerˌfɔr, ˈlet ˈəs təˈgeðər tə ˈbiː ˈstuːdənts ənd ˈtiːtʃərz ˈðæt ɑr ˈdɪlədʒənt, sɪnˈsɪr, ənd ˈkiːp ˈtriːɪŋ wɪˈðæʊt ðiː ˌənˈjiːldɪŋ. ˈwiː ɑr ˌɪndəˈniːʒə, ə ˈrɪtʃ ˈkəntriː ˈðæt ʃəd ˈhæv ðə ˈbest ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən. ˈduː ˈnɑt ˈgɪv ˈəp ˈɔn ðə ˈfeɪt əv ɑr ˈneɪʃən təˈdeɪ, ənd kənˈtɪnjuːz tə ˈstrəgəl ˈɪn ˈgeɪnɪŋ ən ˌɪndəˈpendəns ˌedʒəˈkeɪʃən.


ˈaɪ wəd ˈlaɪk tə ˈθæŋk ˈjuː ˈɔl fər ˈgɪvɪŋ ˈmiː ðiː ˌɑpərˈtuːnətiː tə kənˈveɪ [these] ˈʃɔrt ˈjuːsfəl ˈmesɪdʒɪz.
ˈθæŋk ˈjuː fər ˈɔl ðiː əˈtenʃən,
[Wassalamualaikum] [wr] [wb]


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